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Pharmacognostically Considered. 

Friedrich A. Flückiger, Ph.D., 

Professor in the University of Strasburg, Gbrmany, and Author of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 



Professor of Pharmacy and Materia Medica in the University of Wisconsin. 




No. 1012 Walnut Street. 

1884 . 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 








In accordance with the progress of human development, the 
most important vegetable remedies are, or were, to a large degree, 
of Oriental or South European origin. America contributed at 
first but few products ; and that which has now acquired such 
extraordinary significance in the National economy — tobacco — is 
without importance from a medicinal point of view, although 
Nicotiana was first introduced into Europe for the sake of its 
medicinal virtues. A Century later there appeared a remedy 
from the American vegetable kingdom in the form of Cinchona 
bark, the value of which has received ever increasing recognition, 
even under the severest criticism of the present day. With refer- 
ence to the sums of money which it sets in motion, the world’s 
market may designate thls bark as the most important medicinal 
remedy, although its value at the present time depends much 
more upon the fact of its affording the crude material for manu- 
facturing industries. Since the discovery of quinine, and the 
immediate subsequent preparation of the same on a manufacturing 
scale, the pharmacognostical importance of Cinchona barks has 
correspondingly changed ; the greater certitude in the quantitative 
estimation of the alkaloids also has the effect of forcing a know- 
ledge of the external characters of the barks, as such, in the back- 
ground. The revolution is slowly effected, and until within a short 
period the chapter of Cinchona barks still flourished in pharma- 
ceutical literature, with all of its original and extreme luxuriance. 

The advances in the cultivation of the Cinchonas now render 
necessary a different comprehension of the subject of “ Chincho- 
nology (Chinology or Quinology), as, with scarcely justifiable 
emphasis, this section of pharmacognosy has been named. 

Unfortunately, there is still altogether too much wanting to pro- 
duce satisfactory and complete symmetry. Even from a system- 
atical consideration, the botanical knowledge of the respective 



group of plants leaves much to be desired, to be silent regarding 
an insight into the anatomical structure of their barks; with 
relation also to the most important question, the distribution of 
the alkaloids in these plants, we are imperfectly informed. 

The sudden flooding of the market with Cinchona cuprea, 
which does not belong to a Cinchona, and particularly, with regard 
to its tissue, is altogether distinct from the Cinchona barks in a 
more restricted sense, has brought to light that which for the 
entire world is a surprising fact, that quinine and the allied bases 
are not confined to the genus Cinchona. The new views which 
are forced npon us by this observation presents again very par- 
ticularly the question as to which plants inside the circle of the 
Cinchoneae contain in general cinchona alkaloids. The answer to 
this in the meanwhile can be but a very incomplete one. 

There are thus connected with the Cinchona barks many points 
of interest, traditions which have become and remain dear to the 
pharmacist and the physician, as well as views into the future, 
which are likewise worthy of the consideration of a wider circle. 
It was my endeavor to render prominent these points of view by 
the light of the present, to arrange the not always refreshing 
material of past times, and to open the path to a better under- 
standing. The short distance which I have been able to traverse 
shows, indeed, some progress, and invites to further labor. 

The following lines, especially with consideration of a larger 
circle of readers, have been abstracted from my “ Pharmakog- 
nosie,” although amplified in manifold directions. The importance 
of the subject appeared to me to justify such a treatment of it. 

I have hereby been assisted, in a manner most worthy of thanks, 
by my friends, Dr. J. E. de Vrij, C. S. I., of the Hague, and Dr. 
G. Kerner (Zimmers Quinine Manufactory in Frankfurt). 

The Author. 

Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Strasburg. 


In presenting to the public an American edition of Professor 
Flückiger’s admirable monograph, the translator has been actuated 
by the desire that so valuable a contribution to the literatu re of 
Pharmacognosy should not be restricted in its sphere of appre- 
ciation to those conversant with the German idiom, but that it 
might also be rendered accessible to a still larger dass of readers. 

The aims and purposes which have guidecl the author in his 
work have been clearly enunciated in the words of his preface, 
and require no further elucidation. In the present edition, it has 
been my endeavor to render the translation as literal as was con- 
sistent with clearness of expression, and to preserve throughout 
the arrangement of the original text. 

The section relating to the quantitative estimation of the alka- 
loids has been considerably extended. The author’s method of 
assay has hereby been given somewhat more in detail, and supple- 
mented by a wood-cut representing the form of apparatus origi- 
nally figured and described by him. The process of Squibb, as 
recently improved, has been rendered more explicit, and that of 
De Vrij, as adopted by the United States Pharmacopceia (sixth 
revision, 1880) has also been added, together with the method of 
De Vrij for the determination of crystallizable quinine in the mixed 

Since the successful practical application of these methods of 
assay, and the correctness of the results which they afiford, is to so 
large a degree dependent upon the careful observance of all their 
details, as well as upon a knowledge of the principles involved, it 
was considered that such additions would prove useful, and in 
many instances avoid reference to the original publication, not 
always readily accessible. 

The handsome lithographic plates of the original monograph 
have been specially imported for their reproduction in this edition, 
and will be found sufficiently explained in an addition to the text. 




Besides the above noted and a few minor additions, I have been 
kindly favored by the author with numerous notes, comprising the 
results of more recent observations or research, which are dis- 
tributed throughout the work. 

With these brief Statements, the translator ventures to express 
the hope that the work of his honored friend and master may also 
be received in America, as in Europe, with the favor it so richly 
merits, and, while aiding in the dissemination of general know- 
ledge, may likewise incite to the further substantial development 
of true pharmacognostical Science. 

Madison, Wis., March, 1884. 


Botanical Origin, 


• • • 


The Most Important Species of Cinchona, 

• • * 

Remijia, . 



Habitat of the Cinchonas, 


• • * 

Cinchona Culture, 


* • * * * 

• • • 

Collection of the Barks. 

Mossing, Coppicing, 

Uprooting, . 


Appearance and Anatomical Structure of the Cinchona Barks, . 

Contents of their Tissue. 


Location of the Alkaloids, 


Varieties of Cinchona Bark, 



Cinchona Cuprea, 


• • • • 

• • • 



• • • 


Chemical Constituents of the Cinchona Barks. 

Amount of Alkaloids, 


Quantitative Estimation of the Alkaloids, 


• • • 







2 9 












Manufacture of the Alkaloids, . . . . . . -79 


HlSTORY OF THE ClNCHONA Bares, TO THE YeAR 173^, . . . . 8 l 


Their History TO the Present Time, . . . . . .86 


List of the More Recent Publications Relating to the Cinchona Barks, 92 
Index, ........... 99 

Explanation of the Plates, . . . . . . .104 







By the expressions Cinchona barks or Peruvian barks , Latin cor- 
tices cinchona or cortices chince , German Chinarinden , French ecorces 
de quinquina , Spanish quina , are designated such barks as contain 
alkaloids of a particular group, which may directly be denoted as 
the cinchona bases. These anti-febrile alkaloids have, as yet.been 
met with only in the barks of the cinchoneae. 

In the very numerous family of the Rubiaceae the Cinchonea 
belong to the series of those having dry, many-seeded, capsular 
fruits, and scale-like, deciduous stipules ; and within this circle they 
form one of those groups which are characterized by an expanded, 
branched, not contracted or capitate inflorescence. Both valves ot 
the capsule contain a large number of small seeds, wingecl all 
around by a broad membrane, which is very irregularly toothed 
or lacerated at the edge (Plate III); the embryo is embedded in 
richly developed endosperm. 

The division of the Eucinchoneae presents a valvate not re- 
flexed or imbricated corolla (Plate II), and angular funiculi in 
the middle of the partition of the capsule. The genus Cinchona 
is distinguished finally by a tolerably long, cylindrical, or onlv 
very slightly contracted or expanded corolla tube. The five flatlv 
e ^Pj n 1 c . ec °k es the corolla, which are small in dimensions are 
ot dehcate texture, fringed at the margin (Plate II), and of a 
whitish, purple, bnght red or somewhat violet color. The period 
of flowermg of the Cinchonas continues, at least in India, through 
the greater part of the year, so that fruits and flowers are usuaflv 
present at the same time. The styles of the latter sometimes pro^ 

dosedTpiat' Uh?™ (Pla r e c) ’ and are s °™etimes en- 

sticrmai in f 1 ’ b ^’ a third f ° rm ° f the flower Wlth alm °st sessile 
Stigmas and longer stamens may also be observed. While the 

B 9 



fertilization of other heterostylöus plants is usually effected by 
insects, this appears not to be applicable to the Cinchonas, but is 
accomplished rather through the agency of the wind. 

The flowers are arranged in the form of abundant terminal 
panicles or cymes (Plate VI). The valves of the ovate or some- 
what lengthened, but usually not particularly slender capsules, 
dehisce from the base in consequence of the Splitting of the 
partition ; but the two halves of the capsule remain connected at 
the apex by the five-toothed, permanent calyx, without, however, 
thus preventing the detachment of the funiculi (Plate I, III, IV). 

The most closely related members of the Eucinchoneae differ in 
the following respects from the genus Cinchona : J — 

The species of Cascarilla , including Buena and Cosmibuena , 
have larger, firm, often even leathery corolla lobes, which are not 
fringed, but beset with coarse, club-shaped hairs. The capsules 
dehisce first from the apex (Plate V, left ). 1 2 

The genus Remijia (Plate VI), otherwise differing but slightly 
from Cinchona, is distinguished by the long-stalked, interrupted 
racemes, cymes or panicles, situated in the axils of the leaves. 
The edge of the calyx is furthermore extended, often cup-shaped, 
the capsules cylindrically compressed, ovate or nearly spherical, 
and, as a rule, dehiscing first from the apex. The Remijia species 
have on the contrary, in common with the Cinchonas, the slightly 
attractive, red or white flowers, and even the pleasant odor of 
the latter. The Remijia does not represent large trees; the 
leaves of the smaller forms are occasionally arranged in whorls of 

In the Pimentelia the inflorescence forms compact panicles 
projecting from the axils of the leaves . 3 Ladenbergia and Macroc- 
nemum are separated in the most striking manner from Cinchona 
by their entire appearance . 4 

To what extent the barks of these plants show corresponding 
distinctions in regarcl to their anatomical structure, has been 
but slightly investigated. The Condaminea , mentioned on page 

1 Bentbam ct Hooker. Genera Plantarum II (1873-1876), 33. Bailion. Histoire des 
Pla?ites, VII (1880), 479. 

2 The following drawings of Karsten’s in the Florce Columbia specim. select, give a good 
representation of Cascarilla: C. barbacoensis, tab. xxiii ; C. Henleana, tab. xxvii ; C. 
heterocarpa, tab. vi ; C. macrocarpa, tab. xxi. 

3 Weddell, in Hist. nat. des Quinquinas, tab. 27, B., gives a figure of the Pimentelia 

4 Compare, for example, Karsten’s figure of Joosia (Ladenbergia) umbellifera, in 
Flor. Columb. specim. sei., Tab. V, and Lasionema (Macrocnemum) cinchonoldes, in 
Weddell’s Plate 27 B. 



49, approaches the Cinchoneae to some extent in this respect, 
Irom vvhich, however, it must be excluded for morphological 

Cascarilla, the Remijias, Pimentelia, the Ladenbergias, and the 
Macrocnemum species, in Opposition to the Cinchonas, are much 
more widely distributed through the tropical and a portion of the 
sub-tropical countries of South America, and by no means confinecl 
to the mountains. Among the Spanish and Portuguese population 
they are all comprehended under the name of Cascarillos bobos / 
spurious or false cinchonas. The barks of many of the trees 
belonging to this dass are considered in their native country to 
possess medicinal properties, and occasionally found their way to 
Europe, particularly before the discovery of quinine. After this 
period, however, it was ascertained that the so-called spurious 
cinchona barks , which had al ready been regarded in Europe as 
dubitable, contained either no alkaloid at all, or at least no anti- 
febrile alkaloid, and a general inclination to the view was adopted 
that only such barks contain cinchona alkaloids which possess the 
structure described on page 35. This conception was correctecl in 
the year 1871 by an acquaintance with the Cinchona cuprea, which 
occupies an intermediate position, in that it belongs anatomically 
to the false, but chemically to the good cinchona barks, which 
contain alkaloid. It is probable that in the course of time other 
useful barks of this dass will be brought to light from the above- 
mentioned genera of Cascarilla, Remijia and Pimentelia. The 
bark collectors, who are familiär with the appearance of the true 
Cinchonas, will therefore presumably in future restrict themselves 
less from a closer acquaintance with other Cinchonas, since the 
Cinchona cuprea has proved itself valuable. 

The Cinchonas or fever-bark trees, Cascarillos finos , are ever- 
green, with mostly leathery, shining leaves, which are traversecl by 
a strong mid-rib and finely veined by delicate lateral nerves The 
thick leaf-stalk, which is often of a fine purple color, attains’ at the 
most one-third the length of the leaf, but usually remains shorter 
ln outline the eaves are ovate, obovate, or nearly circular, in some 
species lanceolate, seldom somewhat cordate (as in C. cordifolia 

?r(ZT ia p r gS r ~ co/ ^ äo 

alkaloids. How very improbable this is is sh ^ c . oes not ir| deed contain the cinchon; 
mentioned «, page 50, Note 6, and also 'possiblj ^Ve^öfimalaTl^gcpO T ^™“ 



M litis' and also possibly in part in C. hirsuta, C. Mutisii, and C. 
pubescens) ; they are smooth, or at the most slightly revolute, 
always entire, and besides often very variable on die satne tree, 
(as, e. g., in C. heterophylla). With regard to size, the leaves also 
vary considerably. Occasionally the young leaves are of a purple 
or purplish-violet color (in Spanish niorado) on the under surface; 
and the fully developed leaves of several species assunie quite 
regularly, directly before falling, this often very rieh, dark color, 
which is strongly marked, e. g. in C. purpurescens, Wedd. 

The Cinchonas present themselves as handsome, even though 
not precisely extraordinarily remarkable, shrubs or trees of the 
tropical primeval forest, of about the appearance of the Syringa. 

Ihe genus Cinchona is one so uniform, and whose members 
agree so closely, that a satisfactory definition of the latter is not 
readily accomplished. The individual species are connected with 
each other by intermediate forms, and form a continuous series, 
the terminal members of which are moreover scarcely more sharply 
separated frorn the above-mentioned alliecl genera than from 
plants of their own series. In the systematic botany of the Cin- 
chonas the limit of the species is therefore often dependent upon 
very insignificant characters, for the justification of which doubt 
prevails in rnany cases. According to the diversity of view in the 
conception of the species, the nurnber of species of cinchona 
accepted by botanists has consequently varied. In the year 1830, 
for example, the Prodromus of De Canclolle accepted 1 8 species. 
Howard’s handsome work, “NuevaQuinologia,” contains 38species, 
which are represented also for the most part by figures; but which 
on the one hand must be considerably increased, and, on the other, 
modified by the combination of evident sub-species. Without 
consideration of the fact that sorne botanists have connected plants 
with the genus Cinchona, which, according to the above outlined 
diagnosis of the genus (page 10), are positively distinct therefrom, 
the nurnber of good species of Cinchona which has been gradually 
described has increased to about 50. A coniplete review of the sanie 
is given in Weddell’s “Notes sur les Ouinquinas,” where indeed 
33 species 1 2 are still represented, while 18 others are mentioned 
only as sub-species, with varieties and sub-varieties. According to 
Weddell’s representation there is, however, also in those species no 

1 Figures in Histoire naturelle djs Quinquinas , 17, by Weddell ; Flor. Colutnb. I,tab. 
VIII, by Karsten; and in Msdicinal Plants by Bentley and Trimen, London, 1880, 143. 

2 Enumerated in Pharmacographia by Flückiger and Hanbury, 1879, p. 355, with the 
exception of Cinchona Cho.neliana and C. barbaeöensis, which must be separated from 



strict Separation observable, but rather gives thereby to his views 
the particular expression that he refers all the Cinchonas to 5 stems 
(souches, stirpes). To these fundamental forms, from which all 
others radiate, Weddell assigns the name of the Cinchona which, 
for the respectjve stem, is the most striking or the best known, 
namely : 1. Stirps of Cinchona, officinalis, 2. Stirps Cinchona; 
rugosce. 3. Stirps Cinchonce micranthce. 4. Stirps Cinchona; 
Calisayce. 5. Stirps Cinchonce ovatce. The last forms acceptecl by 
Weddell approach already very closely to Cascarillos bobos, or to 
the spurious cinchonas, namely, on account of the slender cap- 
sules, which dehisce from the apex. 

Kuntze 1 desires to have all the cinchona trees referred to four 
species, and declares the numerous species represented by other 
botanists, with the exception of Howard’s Cinchona Pahudiana, 
as hybrids of the four species, which have been describecl by 
him in sharply discriminating diagnoses and in light outlines. 

From Kuntze’s disquisition the following review is obtained: — 

A. Cinchonas with coarse, not very large leaves; thecapsules so 
contracted longitudinally in the centre that both halves of the fruit 
appear plainly evident. Each of the latter is provided with from 
4 to 6 ribs, but both are held together by the widely expanded 
funnel-shaped calyx of the fruit. 

(1) Cinchona Weddelliana is provided with leaf-pits, scrobiculi , 
and is distinguished by the only slightly lengthened, nearly spherical 
capsule, which is crowned by a very small fruit calyx. 

(2) Cinchona Pahudiana, in distinction from theabove, is pubes- 
cent, the corolla tube is pentagonal, and the fruit calyx almost as 
wide as the fruit itself. 

B. Cinchonas with less coarse or thin, often very large leaves. 
The capsule is somewhat dilated, almost cylindrically beaked, 
scaicely contracted longitudinally, without ribs, and terminating 
without contraction in the small unexpanded calyx. 

(3) Cinchona Howardiana is remarkable for the not pure 
green coloi and the significant size of the leaves, which, even in the 
inflorescence, are still quite prominent, and are always devoid of 

Pits > an d also for the remarkable width of the pale wing of the 
seeds. s 

( 4 ) Cinchona Pavoniana deviates therefrom in possessincr, at 
least on the flowing branches, leaves of a beautiful green cSior 
which are provided with leaf-pits; but, on the contrary, only yellow- 
lsh-white, not bnght flowers. 

cember e -d' n i882 S d C 7°o 1*'a K T Untz f’ s r £, m * rk s in th « Pharmaceut. Zeitung, De- 
cember 2d, 1882, p. 730, and in the London Journal of Bolany, January, 1883. * 



The distinctions between A and B are very definite and based 
up°n good observations. As a progressive Step may be promi- 
nently noted the consideration of the ribs, which are represented 
by the fruits of the division A; other good points of observation 
are afforded by the edges of the corolla in C. Pahudiana, as also 
the widely expanded form of the fruit-calyx in A. The credit is due 
to Kuntze for having discovered these characteristics, which, as it 
appears, on the living plant are very sharply defined. The flowers 
and capsules suffer changes by drying which lead to deception, and 
half-ripe fruits of the division B may, in an herbarium, for example, 
present ribs which, during life at least, do not pertain to the ripe 

Between i and 2, as may be seen, there is no deficiency of very 
positive distinctions; the species 3 and 4, to judge from the descrip- 
tions and figures of Kuntze, are less widely separated. 

These 4 chief species of Kuntze correspond but slightly to the 5 
fundamental forms (stirpes) of Weddell. The former has observed 
living Cinchonas on the Indian plantations, Weddell, the species 
growing wild in Bolivia and Peru ; both botanists have moreover 
compared dried specimens of forms which were not seen by them 
in natu re. It must remain the task of a third systematic botanist 
to determine anew which method of comprehension best corres- 
ponds to the totality of the forms. Kuntze arranges the stems of 
Weddell in the following Order: — 

(1) The forms of Weddell combined under C. officinalis he 
declares as hybrids of C. Weddelliana with C. Pavoniana and C. 

(2) In the rugosa he recognizes C. Pahudiana and related 

(3) Weddell’s C. micrantha Kuntze declares as C. Pavoniana 
and derivatives belonging thereto. 

(4) The Calisaya as C. Weddelliana and hybrids. 

(5) The C. ovata of Weddell are, according to Kuntze, to be 
referred to C. Howardiana. 

It remains questionable whether anything is gainecl by exchang- 
ing the 51 species and sub-species of Weddell for the 44 species 
and hybrids of Kuntze. 

If, however, it be admitted that the origin of the forms which 
were met with by Kuntze in British India and Java have been 
correctly recognized by him, it is still not evident why the wild- 
growing Cinchonas of South America should be embraced, 
collectively and individually, with the hybrids accepted by Kuntze. 

The observations on the plantations have indeed proved that 



hybridization between the Cinchonas, which, among themselves, 
are so closely related, may very easily be accomplished ; but in 
natu re it would be scarcely possible to distinguish whether such a 
mixed derivative is in question, or a form, of a definite species 
which has originated through other infiuences. 

The view "of Bailion, 1 which is moreover not based upon 
thorough observation, that about 20 species of Cinchona are to be 
accepted, may possibly be the most correct. 



As Cinchonas of most prominent importance, the following are 
at the present time to be designated : — 

(1) Cinchona Succirubra Pavon, Plate I. This beautiful tree, 
which attains a height of 25 meters (82 feet), bears ovate or some- 
what oblong, scarcely acuminate, thin leaves, which attain nearlyhalf 
a meter (2.0 inches) in length, and often 35 centimeters (13.5 inches) 
in width; they are somewhat reflexed on the margin, and pubescent 
on the netted veins of the dull lower surface. The panicle of 
flowers is but slightly attractive. The distribution of C. succirubra 
in its native country is confined ; it descends from the Western de- 
clivity of the Chimborazo (S. Antonio de Huaranda) southwarcl 
through Riobamba, Alausi and Cuenca, to northern Peru (province 
of Jaen in the department of Caxamarca) deep into the valleys. 

In Ceylon it flourishes admirably between 2000 and 5000 feet 
above the level of the sea ; in the south-Indian Nilagiris between 
5000 and 7000 feet. C. succirubra is therefore well aclapted for 
improvement by means of grafting or hybridization. Such a valu- 
able form, occurring in Ceylon as the product of Cinchona ofifici- 
nalis and C. succirubra, is designated by Trimen 2 as Cinchona ro- 

After Weddell for a short time had presumed the C. succirubra 
to be the mother-plant of the red cinchona bark, which, however, 
as C. ovata ( r . erythroderma) he had not recognized with sufficient 
precision, Howard and Klotzsch furnished the proof of the inde- 
pendent character of the plant and its importance (page 46). The 

1 Histoire des Plantes. VII (1879), 34 2 - 

v/iwToi 7 T'o X o n (l88 J 2 i’ 352 ' 8o1 - IolS - The cinchona designated there, loc. cif. 
y 1 v l8 . 7 u 8 p pp ' , 6 3 8 ’ 8o 5 and 825 as “ pubescens ” or also as“lanosa,” is not tobecon- 
tused with C. pubescens vahl. Of the former Bidie gives a tolerably good figure in the 
pamphlet mentioned under No. 3 in section 18. 



colorless juice which exudes upon wounding the bark of this tree 
becomes, by exposure to the air, first milky, and then immediately 
red, in consequence of the active absorption of oxygen by the 
cincho-tannic acid. 

Other figures of C. succirubra are contained in Howard’s Nueva 
Quinologia , tab. 8 ; Bentley and Trimen’s Medicinal Plants, 142 ; 
and Bailion loc. cit. 342 (uncolored). 

(2) Cinchona Calisaya Weddell, Plates II and III. Occurs in 
part as a high tree, and in part shrub-like, as the variety ß. Jose- 
phiana. It is distinguished by the ovate capsule, which attains 
scarcely the length of the flower. Weddell discovered this species 
in the year 1847, near Apolobamba in Bolivia, northeast of lake 
Titicaca ; it extends beyond the Peruvian boundary, and is dis- 
tributed through the Province of Carabaya (in the department of 
Puno), but not further northward. The Calisaya is also on Bolivian 
territory confined to the hot, wooded, elevated valleys ( Yungas in 
the language of Aymara) of La Paz, to the seventeenth degree of 
Southern latitude, between 1500 and 1800 meters (4875 and 5850 
feet) above the level of the sea. In the grass regions, about 300 
meters (975 feet) higher, it remains shrub-like, and only a few 
meters in height. 

The native designation of Calisaya is deducted by Weddell from 
colli , signifying red in the Quichua language, and saya, imitated or 
shaped, with referenceto the bark or perhaps to the leaf. Pöppig 1 
explains it as ccilla, signifying a remedy, and salla, a rocky founda- 
tion. Markham interprets it as a small chief’s family, Calisaya, 
which, about the year 1780, is said to have played a part in the 
Province of Carabaya. 

Other figures of the plant are contained in: Weddell, tab. 3; 
Berg and Schmidt, Offizin. Gewächse , XIV ; Bentley and Trimen, 
141; Baillon, loc. cit. 338 (uncolored); and Howard, East Indian 
Plantations , VII to X. 

As C. boliviana, Wedclell has described and figured a variety of 
Calisaya which is more confined to Bolivia, and which is principally 
distinguished by the almost invariable purple color of the lower side 
of the leaves. It appears that the characters scarcely suffice to 
retain the plant as a variety, and certainly not to elevate it to a 
particular species. 

The English merchant, Charles Ledger, who, since the year 1845. 
has resided at Puno, the chief city of the Peruvian department ot 
Caravaya, westward from lake Titicaca, and, among other things, 
also engaged in the export of cinchona barks, was directed by the 
1 Travels in Peru , Chili, and on the Amazon River, II (1836), 218. 



natives, in his repeated endeavors to discover the best bark, to the 
“Rojo,” 1 as the choicest sort. In the year 1851 Ledger met with 
the respective cinchona trees on the Mamore, a tributary of the 
Madeira on the left, which has its origin in the northeast chain of 
the Bolivian cordilleras, in the Province of Caupolican. It was, 
however, first in the year 1865 that Ledger’s servant, Manuel Incra 
Mamani, succeeded in collecting seeds of this cinchona in the same 
province, 1 20 leguas (about 780 kilometers or 480 miles) from 
Pelechuco, in about the fifteenth degree of Southern latitude and 68 
degrees west of Greenwich, and to deliver the same to his master. 
The servant, who was imprisoned in consequence by the Corregidor 
of Coroico, died shortly afterward, from the result of the mistreat- 
ment which he was forced to suffer. The seeds, which Ledger offered 
for sale in London without success, were bought by the Dutch 
Government for Java, and then furnished plants whose large per- 
centage of alkaloid was in the year 1874 definitely determined. 2 

Howard has described this cinchona as a variety of the Calisaya, 
and figured the same very handsomely in the “Öuinology of the 
East India Plantations,” Part III, Plates IV, V and VI. 3 The ex- 
ternal peculiarities of the Cinchona Cahsaya Var. Ledgeriana 
(compare our plates II and III) are unimportant, and consist chiefly 
in the small size of the usually pure white, very fragrant flowers, 
which remind of those of Cinchona mi er antha Ruiz et Pavon. 4 The 
tube of the corolla is not contracted as in many other cinchonas; 
the inflorescence is very compactly crowded, often nodding. The 
capsules of Calisaya Ledgeriana are furthermore not tomentose. 

Cahsaya Ledgeriana , according to Kuntze’s comprehension, 
which is disputed by Howard, is a form of his Cinchona Pavoniani- 
Weddelliana. Experience must first demonstrate whether by 
cultivation this cinchona, which at the present time is indeed the 
most valuable of all, can be retained in such a degree of excellence. 

1 Rojo signifies in Spanish, red or reddish-yellow. 

2 Howard, East Indian Plantations, II, 46; Pharm. Journ. X (1880), 730. 

PH o 3 R^ 1 ' n Cated by Wedde11 . ‘ n Howard’s “ Öuinology of the East Indian 
Plantations, fol. 85, is, in concurrence with the latter, as follows : “ Cinchona Calisava 

var Ledgeriana How. Folns ellipticooblongis vel fere oblongis obtusis obtusissimisve' 

l 1 dtubu?s a nUliH 1Cem nonnihd f.^ ustis s - constrictis membranaceis, utriusque viridibus 
vel subtus pallide purpurascentibus nervis simul rubico, axillis vubo sat distinctis 
scrobiculatis ; pamcula flonfera ovata, corollis albis, antheris subexsertis (saltem in 
spec. obvus) pamcula fructifera subcorymbosa, densa, capsulis elliptiris (nrd'p milli 

EL 0t ng MtSs berUliS i, F T- thiS ’ indeed ; n ° Strikin ^ ch P aracteHslfc canl ’observed: 

mo j; aatcÄ' are sta,ed by King! Repor ' ° f “ ay *• 

4 Figured in Howard’s Nucva Quinologia, 5 ; Weddell, 14. 



It would be extremely remarkable to see the permanency in rich- 
ness ot alkaloid attained here by cultivation, which otherwise does 
not occur. 

(3) Cinchona Lancifolia Mutis, Tuna or Tunita, of the 
Bogotians, Plate IV. More than 25 meters (80 feet) in height, 
leaves sharply lanceolate, leathery, mostly 12 centimeters (nearly 
5 inches), on the luxuriant sprigs as much as 36 centimeters 
(about 14 inches) in length, although very variable. 

This species, which has been known since 1776, is confined to 
Columbia (New Granada), and grows admirably in the south, from 
Bogota to Popayan, at an elevation of from 2500 to 3000 meters 
(8125 to 975° feet) above the level of the sea, butalso northwards 
in the mountains of the Magdalena near Chiquinquira, Velez, 
Socorro, and from Pamplona to Ocanna, and, according to Howard, 
also in Uchubamba, not far from Loxa. 

It is very handsomely represented in Karsten’s Flor. Columb., 
tab. xi ; Var. discolor. tab. xii. 

(4) Cinchona Officinalis, the earliest named species. 

In the year 1742 Linnaeus established the genus Cinchona in 
accordance with the notes published by Ch. M. De La Condamine, 
and in 1753 named the tree discovered by the latter Cinchona of- 
ficinalis, but in 1766 he.gave a different diagnosis, which was based 
upon the Communications received by him from Mutis in the year 
1764. These related, however, according to Triana (fol. 10 of 
the work mentioned in section XVIII), to the C. cordifolia of the 
present day. It follows therefrom that the designation Cinchona 
officinalis, as established by Linnaeus, is capable of a double Inter- 
pretation. In his writings from 1742 to 1766 it related to the spe- 
cies which Hooker in 1863 again named Cinchona officinalis, but 
in 1766 Linnaeus included in the diagnosis the present C. cordifolia 
(not C. pubescens as has been generally believed). Furthermore 
Triana, as well as his preclecessors, did not find in the herbarium of 
Linnaeus in London specimens of a “ Cinchona officinalis,” but on 
the contrary, only fragments of C. cordifolia, Cascarilla nitida and 
Exostemma coriaceum, which were designated as Cinchona peru- 
viana. With propriety, therefore, C. officinalis passed into oblivion ; 
and it was first in the year 1863 that Sir Joseph Hooker was in- 
duced to establish a new diagnosis of Cinchona officinalis, and to 
complete the same by a good figure. 

Cinchona officinalis Hooker, Plate V, is therefore to be re- 
garded as a new species, which is indigenous to Ecuador and Peru. 
It does not possess any very striking characteristics ; the flowers are 
small, of a beautiful carmine-red, and downy, and the oblong cap- 




sules sometimes more than i 2 millimeters (half an inch) in length. 
Weddell combines under the name of C. officinalis the Cinchona 
Chahuarguera, C. Condaminea, C. Bonplandiana, C. crispa and C. 
Uritusinga of former systematic botanists. 

A prominent distinction between C. officinalis and C. lancifolia 
is not plainly observable. 

Those different forms of C. officinalis probably furnished chiefly 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and to the present time 
the so-called Loxa Cinchona. According to Wellcome, the region 
of Loxa, from the fourth to the fifth degree of Southern latitude, 
on the boundary of Ecuador and Peru, is now exhausted. 

Other figures of C. officinalis are to be found in Hooker’s Bot. 
Magazine , 5364; Howard’s N. Quinol , I, 19; Howard’s East India 
PI. , IX ; Bentley and Trimen’s Medic. Plants, 140 ; and in Baillon’s 
Hist, des Plantes, 340-341 (uncolored, but elegant). 



Of the most closely connected allies of the Cinchonas mentioned 
on page 10 only tvvo species of the genus Remijia have as yet 
attained actual significance. The shrubs belonging to this genus 
were recommended to the Brazilians first from the environs of ~Ouro 
Preto, the chief city of Minas geraes, by ä surgeon Remijo, as 
Quina de Serra or mountain cinchona, 1 in that they are distributed 
as far as the rough, dry, mountainous regions of the Province Minas 
geraes. V elloso, the Brazihan botanist, who has already been 
mentioned on page 11, had described such Quina de Reviijio , as it 
was also called, under the name of Macrocnemum. 2 Saint-Hilaire 3 
placecl these plants in the series of the genus Cinchona, which at 
that time was much more broadly comprehended than at present. 
De Candolle 4 was the first to separate the genus Remijia, which, 
according to Triana, at present embraces the following species : 5 

Chinabaum, etc.” in Buchner's 
Conimbricce , 1788. 

1 C. F. Ph. Von Martius, “Die Fieber-Rinde, der 
Repertorium für Pharm. XII (1863), p. 358. 

2 In Vandelli, Flora ? lusitance et brasiliensis specimen. 

3 Plantes usuelles des Brasiliens. 1824. 

4 Biblioth'eque universelle de Geneve II (1829), 185. Prodromus, IV, 357. 

5 Bentham et Hooker, Genera Plantaruni, II (187-n arrpnt ti c nP n»c Ar ••• 

^acrop^Ua^rTa^^XX V 1 ^° ifh”’ ^ Cin f hona ' prismatostylis (Tab. VII) and^C.' 

macropnylia ( I ab. XXXV), which have been handsomely fieured bv Karctpn T1-.» 



(i) Remijia Hilarii D. C., in the Province of Minas geraes. (2) 
R. paniculata D. C., in Brazil. (3) R. cujabensis Weddell (Laden- 
bergia Klotzsch ), Bahia. (4) R. Bergeniana Wedd. (Ladenbergia 

Kl). (5) R. firmula Wedd. (Ladenbergia Kl), in Brazil. (6) R. 
macrocnemia Wedd. (Ladenbergia Kl), on die Amazon. (7) R. 
densiflora Benth. et Hooker, in Bridsh Guiana. (8) R. hispida 
Triana, on the Orinoco. (9) R. tenuiflora B entkam , between 
Barra and Barcelos on the Rio Negro, about 65° of western longi- 
tude. (10) Remijia Purdieana Wedd., in the Columbian provinces 
of Antioquia and Santander, in the district of the Magdalena river 
and the Cauca. (1 1) Remijia Pedunculata Triana, in the mountain- 
ous declivities southward from Bogota and eastward to the 
Orinoco, between 1000 and 2000 meters (3250 and 6500 feet) 
above the sea, in the region of the Rio Mesa, Rio Negro, Guaviare, 
Papamene, Zarapote, and other rivers within the domain of the 
upper Orinoco and the Amazon. 

Remijia Purdieana was discovered near Cauvas, in the province 
of Antioquia, by Purdie, the director of the garden at Trinidad 
(t 1 8 3 7) , and was described by Weddell. 1 1 t is characterized by 
the long-stalked opposite panicles, which are located in the axils of 
the leaves, and whose ramifications bear a rust-colored feit ; the 
corolla is of a firm consistence, tomentose on the exterior, and the 
corolla tube narrow. 

Remijia Pedunculata, plate VI, has been met with, both by 
Karsten and Triana, as a small tree 3 meters (about 10 feet) in 
height on the eastern slope of the Corclillera of Bogota, on the 
road in the plains of the Orinoco, near the village of Susumuco, 2 at 
an elevation of 1000 meters (3250 feet). Karsten gives promi- 
nence to the silky lustre of the hairs which envelop the young 
shoots, and are also not wanting on the younger leaves. In the 
fully developed leaves, the leathery lamina, which is sharply 
lanceolate above and below, attains a length of 2 decimeters (8 
inches), and is smooth, with the exception of isolated small bristles 
on the lower surface. The inflorescence is an axillary, long-stalked 
cyme, the border of the calyx bell-shaped, the ovary covered with 
a glandular ring, and the capsule dehisces through the partition 
from the apex to the base, more rarely from the base to the apex. 

1 Annales des Sciences naturelles , Bot. XI (1849), 2 7 2 - The diagnosis is as follows : 

“ foliis oblongis, basi attenuatis, abrupta acuminatis, planis, demum glabratis; panicu- 
la subcorymbosa, bracteis foliaceis integris, bi-tridentatis ; floribus subcapitatis. Panicu- 
lae axillares, oppositae, longe pedunculata;, subcorymbosae pedunculis ramulisque fer- 
rugineo-tomentosis. Corolla mcmbranacea, extrorsum puberula, tubo angusto 1 centim. 
longo. . . .” (The capsule was not at Weddell’s command.) 

2 Between this village and Villavicencio (Triana). 



Of the most closely related species, Cascarilla heterocarpa , 1 C. 
magnifolia , 2 and C. Riveroana , 3 the Remijia pedunculata is distin- 
guished by the axillary inflorescence, by smaller capsules , 4 and the 
leather-like leaves. In plate XXVI of the Flora Columbia 
Specim. select ., mentioned in section XVIII, Karsten completes the 
above description 5 of R. pedunculata (still designated by him as 
Cinchona) by a handsome figure of the same. 

According to Triana 6 the two last named species are very 
positively distinguished from each other. The calyx teeth of 
Remijia Purdieana are much longer than the calyx tube, and 
nearly linear, the stipules sharply lanceolate, and the capsules 
more slender than in Remijia pedunculata. The short calyx teeth 
of the latter are roundish triangulär, and the broad stipules obtusely 

Both species of Remijia afford the barks described below as 
Cinchona cuprea, and must therefore, at least the Remijia pedun- 
culata, occur abundantly in the wide domain from the Magdalena 
river to the eastern declivities of the Cordilleras, southeastward 
from Bogota. 



The Cinchonas are confined to the Cordilleras, whereas the 
other Cinchoneae inhabit a far more extended area under the most 
diverse climatic relations. In other districts of South America, 
which apparently fulfill the same physical conditions as the cinchona 
beit of the Cordilleras, no true cinchona trees have indeed as yet 
been met with. 

1 Karsten, tab. VI. 

Howard, N. Quijiol., tab. X ; presumably not different from C. heterocarpa. 

3 Figured under the incorrect name of C. Ruizii in Weddell’s Hist. nat. des 
Quinqumas, tab. XXIII. 

4 The pear-shaped capsules of Remijia pedunculata, dehiscing from the apex, for 

which I am indebted to Dr. Triana, are 8 millimeters (about three-tenths of an inchl in 
length, with a maximum diameter of 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch). ' 

^ FiQr. Columb. Specim. sei. 54, where the diagnosis is embraced in the following 
words: Cinchona folns conaceis, lanceolatis vel ellipticis, calvis, subtus in costa 

" 2 , P f UUIT j IS ’ st ‘P lllls ma S ms obovatis quam petioli longioribus ; in basi 

connatis extus pilosis, intus ad basin area tnquetra imo Serie villorum tectis • cymis 

mmutrt^£ll^,r gl0n f! US ’ C ° r I mbif0rmibus - Pedunculo communi longissimo, rarais 
Z nil ™ corolhs membranaceis, extus sericeis, limbi laciniis supra barbatis ; 

stammibus tubo corollae medio msertis, inclusis; filamentis glabris brevibus • anther- 
cihatis ; capsuhs compressis, sublignosis, lanceofatis, 15 ad 18 Aillimetr 
longis, ab apice ad basin, rarius a basi ad apicem, septicide dehiscentibus Dilis minutis 
adpressis ; seminum alm ciliato fimbriats, imperföratae.” QenibCentlDus - P llls m*nutis 

* Pharm. Journ. XII (1882), 862 ; also Jonrn. de Pharm. V, 567. 



However much the latter are confined in a vertical direction, yet 
they accompany the chief South American mountain ränge through 
the greater portion of the northern half, for a distance of alxmt 
30 degrees of latitude. 

The most northerly localityof the Cinchonas, which is approxi- 
mately below the tenth degree of latitude, is designated by the 
occurrence of C. cordifolia in the district S.S.W. from Caracas, 
with which species C. tucujensis Karsten is also here associated. 

Weddell, who penetrated the cinchona zone from the southeast, 
met at about the nineteenth degree of Southern latitude, far in the 
interior of Bolivia, with the most southerly species, which he ac- 
cordingly designated as C. australis. The country west of Chu- 
quisaca (Sucre), the chief city of Bolivia, would form, according to 
Weddell, the Southern boundary of the Cinchonas. It appears, 
however, that this must be still further extended, and about to the 
twenty-second degree of Southern latitude, for Scherzer 1 relates of 
a clergyman in Tarija (on the Argentine boundary, in the south of 
Bolivia), who is said to have offered for sale 3000 hundred weight 
of excellent bark, sucupira of the Indians, which was procured 
from the forests between Tarija and Cochabamba, thus from the 
water-shed between the Marannon and the La Plata. 

Between these extreme points in the south, and the mountains 
of Caracas, not far from the Caribbean sea in the north, the beit of 
the Cinchonas, following the crests of the mighty mountain chain, 
describes a crescent, opened toward the east,of about 500 geograph- 
ical miles in length. 

The conditions under which the Cinchonas live may be deducted 
already in part from the above intimations with regard to the occur- 
rence of the most important species, and, in indited form, have been 
elaborately elucidated by Martius, 2 and still more accurately, on the 
spot itself, by those English travelers who have distinguished them- 
selves by the removal of the cinchona trees to India and the Colo- 
nies. 3 Only the variable, sunny climate of the tropical mountain 
regions, which is inter rupted by frequent showers, storms, thick fog 
and mist, with very changeable but not widely digressing ranges 
of temperature, is adaptecl to the Cinchonas. A transient depres- 
sion of temperature to the freezing point, and not unfrequent 
showers of hail, may indeed be borne by strong plants ; yet the 
mean temperature most favorable to them should be estimated at 
not less than from 12 to 20° C. (54 to 68° F.). According to.the 

1 Vyage of the Austrian frigatc Novara, III (1859), 3 66 - 

2 Buchner’s Repertorium für Pharmacie, XII (1863), 362, 373- 

3 Complete reports in the Blue Boolcs cited under section 18. 



opinion of the bark collectors, however, a proportionately cooler 
location, extending to the uppermost boundary of lorest Vegetation, 
favors the formation of alkaloid. A considerable exposure to direct 
sunlight appears to be injurious to young plants, but decidedly 
favorable to strongly developed trees, and particularly also to 
increase the brightness of color of the bark, which in commerce is 
so highly prized. 

As the precise habitat of the Cascarilla fina, the best cinchona 
bark, Karsten 1 unhesitatingly designates the foggy region of the 
Andes chain, which is intercepted by deep valleys. with a mean 
temperature of 12 to 13 0 C. (53.6 to 55.4 F.), where, through nine 
months of the year, rain prevails, and an actual alternation of sea- 
sons occurs to so slight an extent that the Cinchonas continually 
bear flowers and fruits. The lower region, in which already a dry 
season may be distinguished, contains chiefly large-leaved cinchona 
trees of less medicinal power, together with the worthless “ Casca- 
rillos bobos.” 

From the dimensions already stated it is manifest that the Cin- 
chonas belong to the medium and higher forms of the tropical 
primeval forest, but are, however, overtopped by the far more 
mighty representatives of the Artocarpeae, Lecythideae, Sapindaceae, 
Terebinthaceae, the palms, and many others. 

The richness of the tropical flora excluclesa uniform constituency 
of the forest, and accordingly the Cinchonas also live mostly dis- 
persed, at the most, forming here and there smaller groups, which 
in the distance are discriminated more by a particular color than 
by a striking arrangement of the complete picture of the primitive 
forest. Such spots ( manchas ) in the variegatecl carpet of the 
crowns of foliage are espied by the disciplined eye of the bark col- 
lector {casc dritter 6 ) at the remotest distances, 2 even at a time when 
they are not decorated by the rieh flower clusters. 

Extended groups of C. corymbosa, which almost deserve’ the 
name of cinchona forests, were met with by Karsten 3 on the 
boundary of New Granada and Ecuador, on the Western declivity 
of the volcanoes Cumbal and Chiles. 

The Cinchonas may always be designated as a very remarkable 
member in the vegetative dress of their surroundings, so that the 
Portion of the South American mountain regions inhabited by 

1 Medicinische Chinarinden Ncu-Granadas, p. 12-13. 

S A^dell, Hist.nat. fbl. 9. ro; also Wellcome : “A visitto the native Cinchona forests 
ot bouth America Proceedings of the American Pharm. Association (1870), 814-830- 

r/^/" te i88o thC Iharm ' J our>l - X ( i8 79 ). 9 8 °. and abstracted in Just’s Botan. Jahresbe- 

3 Medic. Chinarinden, p. 20. 



them, at an elevation of 700 to 2900 meters (2275 to 94 2 5 feet), 
was prominen tly noted by Humboldt as the region of the tropica! 
oaks and Cinchonas. 

Weddell excluded the cinchoneae which generally inhabit lower 
altitudes and do not contain alkaloid, and drew for the zone 
of the true cinchona trees the boundaries of elevation at 1600 
and 2400 meters (5200 and 7800 feet). The lowest altitude at 
which the true Cinchonas occur in their native country is at an 
elevation of 1200 meters (3900 feet), and the uppermost line is to 
be accepted as 3270 meters (10,630 feet), or, in accordance with 
Karsten, as 3500 meters (11,375 feet). With the distance from 
the equator the average altitude of the Cinchona zone becomes 
considerably decreased, although the Cascarillos finos do not read- 
ily descend lower than 2000 meters (6500 feet). C. succirubra 
occurs exceptionally as low as 800 meters (2600 feet); but by its 
very large, not precisely leathery, leaves, as also by the slender 
fruits, likewise does not agree with most of the other species of 
valuable Cinchona. 



The earnest desire to subject the Cinchonas to the careful at- 
tention of forest husbandry, in more conveniently located districts, 
must have excited activity as soon as some scientific information 
had been obtained regarding these trees. Even Condamine, to 
whom we are indebted for the first description of a Cinchona, had 
sought to transport young cinchona plants to Europe, but lost 
them by the waves at the mouth of the Amazon river. 1 Mutis 
was probably the first who, in Mariquita (see section 17), oc- 
cupied himself with the cultivation of the Cinchonas. 2 In earlier 
times the Jesuits in Bolivia had also already imposed upon the 
Cascarilleros the Obligation to plant 5 seedlings in the form of a 
cross • j • for each cinchona tree that was felled. 3 

The idea of transferring the cinchona trees to the old world was 
ever newly revived, 4 and experiments relating thereto were also 
not completely wanting. Such an one, for example, emanated, in 

1 H. von Bergen, Monogr. der China , nz.after Condamine’s Relation d' un voyage, 

2 A von Humboldt. “ Ueber die Chinawälder in Südamerica." Der Gesellschaft 
Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neusten Entdeckungen in der 
Naturkunde, I (1807), 57-68. 

3 Howard. East Indian Plantations , III, 49. 

4 Compare the English Blue Book of 1863, fol. I ; Dclondre et Soubeiran (Title under 
section 18); Oudemans Handleiding tot de Pharmocognosie, Amsterdam 1880, p. 146. 



1849, from the Jesuits in Cuzco, in central Peru, who sent Cin- 
chonas to their settlements in Algeria. 1 These endeavors in 
Algeria remained unsuccessful, but attracted the attention of the 
Dutch, so that finally, in 1851, Miquel’s repeated impulsions 
received the approbation of the Colonial Minister Pahud, who now 
realized the excellent idea, and later, in 1855, being advanced to 
the position of Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, actively 
assisted in its accomplishment. Pahud accordingly effected the 
despatch of the German botanist Hasskarl to South America, which 
took place in December, 1852, from Southampton; in 1853 he trav- 
eled trom Lim^, through the district of Cuzco, as far as Sandia, on 
the Bolivian boundary, and finally, after a repeated visit to Bolivia, 
the collections, contained in 21 Wardian cases, were, on the 2 ist of 
August, 1854, successfully brought on board of a frigate which the 
government had sent to Islay for this express purpose. Hasskarl 
brought the young plants in December, 1854, to Batavia, and carecl 
for their Settlement in Java ; 2 the seeds collected by him were at 
the same time transferred to the University gardens in Holland. 
But the Dutch had also been otherwise active. In 1848 Weddell 
brought seeds of Cinchona Calisaya to Paris, which there de- 
veloped well, in the commercial garden of Thibaut and Keteleer. 2 
In 1852 the Dutch Government sent young Calisaya plants of this 
firm to Java, and likewise in 1854 the seeds of Cinchona lancifolia, 
obtained through Karsten from Columbia. The gardens in Hol- 
land furthermore soon furnished from Hasskarfs seeds strono- 
plants for Java ; the first results there from all these endeavors 
corresponded, however, but little to the expectations. 

On the part of the English, a report from Royle in June, 1852, 
addressed to the East India Company, gave an impulse for the 
energetic pursuance of the planting of Cinchona trees. The 
learned botanist recommended for the settlements in India the Blue 
Hills (Nilagiris, Neilgherries) of the Malabar coast and the South- 
ern promontories ol the Himalaya. 3 

After the but slightly satisfactory attempts of the Government 
through the Intervention of the English agents, to attain the pur- 
pose in view, Markham finally came forward, in April, 1859. with an 
öfter to accept the matter, for which he was rendered capable bv a 
thorough acquaintance with the land and people of the domains on 

1 Joum. de Pharm. XX 

Aoüt 1867 

Xvin" by ° Udem “ S ’ * — f°Howi„g ; 

5 Blue Book of 1863. • 





the borders of Bolivia and Peru, as also by a knowledge of the 
Spanish and Quichua languages, and also already with die most 
important Cinchona trees. Being well aware, from the nature of 
things, of the underlying difficulties, Markham earnestly insisted 
that nothing should be neglected which could ensure success. 
It was of great value that he effected the appointment of the 
distinguished botanist, Spruce, who was at that time traveling 
in Ecuador, for the obtainment of the C. succirubra, as also the 
Services of Prichett, likewise resident in South America, for the 
region of Huänuco in central Peru, io° S. latitude. A very com- 
petent gardener was afterward (1861) secured, in Cross, an original 
companion of Spruce, who collected still more of the seeds and 
young plants of the best species, and placed them with his own 
hands in India. Markham reserved for himself the border-lands 
of Peru and Bolivia, in order to obtain C. Calisaya, and for this 
purpose started from Islay in March 1860. Having arrived in the 
midJle of April, by way of Arequipa and Puno, at Crucero, the 
chief city of Caravaya, he met, not far from Sandia, with the first 
thickets of C. Josephiana, then also C. boliviana, C. Calisaya and 
others. Markham thus secured for himself 456 y^oung plants, 
which were successfully shipped at Islay, toward the end of June. 
The ripening of the seeds of the Calisaya, which takes place in 
the month of August, could not be waited for, in consequence of 
the hostile disposition of the people of the country with regard to 
the enterprise ; and in general very great difficulties were required 
to be overcome, of which the leader of the entire expedition has 
projected a picture which is as instructive as it is interesting. 1 

Further settlements of the precious plants were begun in 1861, 
at Hakgalla, in the central mountain districts of Ceylon, at an ele- 
vation of 5000 feet ; in 1862 at Dardschiling (Darjeeling), in the 
Southern part of Sikkim, in the southeastern Himalaya; in 1865, in 
New Zealand and upon the Australian continent, for example, in 
1866, in part through private citizens, at Brisbane (Queensland, on 
the eastern coast of Australia). As the primary central point of 
the entire undertaking, however, Utacamand (Ootacamund), be- 
tween 1 1 and 12 0 N. lat., is prominent, together with its branches, 
extending as far as the Southern point of the Indian peninsula, in 
part at elevations of about 8000 feet above the sea. Before the 
arrival of Markham with the first young Cinchonas from Bolivia, 
the most careful examinations, from a meteorological and geological 
standpoint, had led to the selection of this locality. In addition 
thereto, occurred the fortunate circumstance that the plantations 
1 Matkham’s Reports in the Blue Books, and his monograph "Peruvian Bark.” 



here were placed in charge of the experiencecl gardener, William 
Graham Mac Ivor (died June 8, 1876), who applied to his task the 
greatest zeal, and also discovered methods for the rapid multipli- 
cation of the Cinchonas. 

The plantations of Java, which in the beginning were not in a 
perfectly satisfactory condition, flourished to such an extent after 
the year 1856, under Junghuhn’s management, that in December, 
1862, there were already, at 10 different places 1,360,000 seedlings 
and young trees, of which, however, the most valuable species 
were in the minority. The experiences in Java led to active and in 
part very bitter cliscussions, which were terminated 011 the one hand 
by the death of Junghuhn (April 20, 1864), andon the other by the 
highly meritorious analytical investigations of J. E. De Vrij. In the 
year 1857 the latter chemist 1 was despatched by the Government 
of Holland to Java, in order to follow the entire cinchona question 
in its Chemical considerations. In 1864, K. W. Van Gorkom was 
appointed Superintendent of the cinchona plantations in Java, 
which at the present time are successfully directed, also in their 
Chemical considerations, by J. C. Bernelot Moens. 

In September, 1866, John Broughton was appointed by the 
English Government for the Chemical superintendence and direc- 
tion of the plantations at Ootacamund, and rendered very im- 
portant Service until December, 1874, when, in consequence of 
disagreement with the authorities, he resigned his position. The 
vacancy thus incurred has recently been filled by the appointment 
of M. A. Lawson, professor of botany at Oxford, as Superintendent 
of the government cinchona plantations. 2 

The success of the great exertions, which in the main are de- 
hn eated in the above outlines, finds a living expression in the fol- 
lowing facts. On March 16, 1859 De Vrij laid before the resident 
Governor-General Pahud of Java the first crystals of sulphate of 
quimne, which he had prepared in his laboratory at Bandono- ffom 
bark grown by himself upon the island .3 Howard, of London’ like- 
wise reported to Markham, in May, 1863, that he had obtained’from 
500 grams (about 30 grams) of the bark of Cinchona succirubra 
grown in Incha the sulphates of quinine, cinchonidine and cin- 
chonine. 4 Furthermore, in August, 1867, the importation of Indian 
barks mto London commenced ; and of the first supplies, the bark 

Septemh?r E i86 R 3 ! J aPP ° inted May 6 ’ l857 ’ and resi S ncd - 0n account of his health, in 

London Journal of Botany. Jan. 1883, p. 32. 

3 Written and verbal Communications of my friend Dr. De Vrij. 

4 Blue Book , 1866, p. 14. 



of Cinchona succirubra from the Denison plantation near Ootaca- 
mund, I have preserved a specimen. 1 

In October, 1870, the first 750 kilograms (about 1650 pounds) of 
cinchona bark from Java arrived at the Amsterdam market ; a 
second portion followed in March, 1872, and since that time increas- 
ing consignments of Javanese barks arrive regularly, from year to 
year, in Holland. In the second quarter of the year 1882 the 
Government plantations in Java consisted principally of Calisaya 
Ledgeriana, comprising in the aggregate nearly 1 y 2 million 
plants. 2 

Among the very numerous points of the old and new world in 
which plantations of Cinchonas are now in progress of rieh develop- 
ment, the following, with relation to the world’s market, come 
now particularly into consideration : the plantations of the English 
Government near Hakgalle in Ceylon, in the Nilagiri Hills near 
Ootacamund, as also in the promontories of the Himalaya in British 
Sikkim near I )arjeeling, 3 Mungpoo, Sitting and Rungbee. In the 
second place, the numerous cinchona forests of the Dutch Adminis- 
tration at Java. Independent of these State enterprises, an incentive 
has thus been given to the establishment of a large number of 
private plantations, for the condition and productions of which, 
however, no similar reports are at hand as are regularly deposited 
by the English and Dutch Administrations in their most instructive 
publications, and communicated in a liberal manner. 

Jamaica, in 1880, also began to bring cinchona barks into the 

Finally, in the native country of the Cinchonas itself, plantations 
are in progress ; for example, on the Mapiri, in the Bolivian province 
of Larecaya, and also in the Yungas (see p. 16). 

There is no deficiency of guicles for the establishment and 
management of the cinchona plantations; some of the publications 
relating thereto from India are mentioned in Section XVIII, under 
the names of Bidie, Gorkom, King, Mac Ivor, and Owen, and in 
addition to these, such Information has also been recently received 
from Jamaica. 4 

In India the Cinchonas have at an early date become injured by 
beetles ( Melolontha ) and Caterpillars, 5 and recently a critical enemy 

1 Pharmacographia, 2 edition, p. 351, Note 2. 

2 The recent volcanic eruptions in Java (August, 1883) are reported to have pro- 
duced great destruction among the cinchona plantations. (F. B. P). 

3 At an elevation of 2113 meters (6930 feet) above the sea, and since 1882 in railroad 
communication with Calcutta. 

4 Pharm. Joum. XII (1882), 748. 

5 Blue Book , 1866, p. 170. 



of the cinchona plantations has revealed itself there,.in the form of 
the small hemiptera, Helopeltis Antonii Sigm., or the so-called “tea- 
bug” of the English planters. The female of this insect, which also 
produces damage in the tea plantations, deposits its eggs, from 8 
to 14 in number, in the tops of the cinchona branches and in the 
leaf-stalks, and causes thereby the disease of the trees known by 
the name of kinarcest , in that the young wingless insects nourish 
themselves at the expense of the young leaves. 1 

The barks containing alkaloid which, under the name of Cinchona 
cuprea, have recently attained such prominent significance, belong 
to the genus Remijia , 2 which grows under climatic conditions quite 
different from most Cinchonas. If the forest husbandry will now 
also assume control of the valuable Remijias, the cultivation of the 
febrifuge trees may be extended in wide domains of territory from 
which they have hitherto been excluded. In distinction to the 
Cinchonas, the Remijias are not confined to the mountain regions, 
but are capable of enduring dryness and higher temperatures, 
which, for example, prevail in the climate of the Llanos, in the 
domain of the Orinoco and the Amazon. It is easily possible that 
among these or other related trees still more may be discovered 
with barks containing quinine, which would repay cultivation. 



The hardships of bark collecting in the slightly accessible primeval 
forests of South America are undertaken only by the half-civilized 
Indians and people of mixed race, in the pay of larger or smaller 
speculators or Companies located in the towns. All who are 
engaged in the business, especially the collectors themselves, are 
called CascanUeros pvcicticos , or also C.uscadovcs , from the Spanish 
word Cascara , bark. A major-domo, placed at the head of the 
collectors, directs and superintends the proceedings of the several 
bands in the forest itself, where, in huts of light construction, the 
provisions and afterwards the produce are deposited. Weddell, as 
also Karsten and. Wellcome, 3 have given in a striking manner, as 
eye-witnesses, a picture of these operations. 

The cascarillero, by means of a sabre-like knife, Machete (maekiar 

PP° 3 H aL V 3 “ G ° rk0m ' ^ ‘ he Writi ” gS meMi ° nCd in JuSt ’ S B °< an - 

2 Compare pages 16 and 54. 

3 ! n the wntings previously mentioned, p. 23, and in Section XVIII I am rprpntl« 

also mdebted to Dr. Chas. Robbins, of New York, for such reports. y 



= to become bare), first deprives the exterior of the stem of the 
often luxuriant climbing and parasitic plants, and begins immediately 
also in most cases to scrape off the sapless layer of bark, after the 
sanie has been rendered soft by beating. In Order to detach the 
valuable inner bark, longitudinal and transverse incisions are made 
with chisels, as far as can be reached on the stem. The tree is then 
felled, and, together with the branches, divided, and the Stripping 
finally completed. In most cases, especially after previous beat- 
ing with a mailet, the bark, notwithstanding its slight coherence 
in many species, separates easily from the wood. 

Any considerable quantities of the barks must, at least in many 
districts, be quickly driecl by a fire, which is usually built upon the 
floor of lightly constructed huts. By means of the stems of palm 
leaves, bamboo stalks, or other suitable parts of plants, large hur- 
dles are constructed over the fire, upon which the barks are from 
time to time rearranged. The walls of the huts are also constructed 
of the sarne lattice-work, and likewise receive large pieces of the 
bark. In New Granada the drying of the bark is effected almost 
exclusively over a fire. 

The process of drying, however, is not permitted to be conducted 
too hastily, even when it is required to immediately protect the 
barks from mould, as but slightly excessive heat destroys the alka- 
loids. With this imperfect arrangement, which is the only one 
possible uncler the described conditions, the article apparently only 
then assumes a salable appearance when the drying has been 
continued for three or four weeks. 

In Southern Peru and Bolivia, however, according to Weddell’s 
representation, even the thickest Calisaya barks are dried only by 
exposure to the sun, without requiring the aid of a fire. 

That the bark of the branches is not deprived of the corky layer, 
requires no explanation. With regard to the barks of the stem, 
it depends in part upon the commercial use, whether they are fur- 
nished unaltered or peeled; but in part the anatomical conditions 
also probably have some influence. Where an abundant and 
deeply penetrating formation of bork occurs, as in C. Calisaya, 
the removal of the worthless cork is very easily and completely 
effected ; in other species, on the contrary, such a natural Separation 
of the corky layer does not take place to the same degree, and the 
al together too circumstantial process of peeling is omitted. 

From the report of the personal observations of Wellcome in 
Ecuador, a Cascarillero, after having espied from some higher 
point a tract of forest that indicates sufficient value, procures, by 
the payment of a small fee, a title from the Government. The 



forest district which is thereby allotted to him, for whatever of 
profit it may yield, he names after some holy person — for example, 
Bosque (forest) of San Miguel. In consideration of titles of this 
kind for several such Bosques the master Cascarillero may receive 
from a commercial house advancements of money, in order to en- 
gage the Services of occasionally from 300 to 400 laborers, Peons , 
which, in October or November, he guides into the forest. The 
men begin their activities by the erection of bamboo huts, and are 
then divided into sections, at the head of which a Jefe , Captain, is 
usually placed. For the search of the trees, felling them, cleaning 
and peeling the trunks, digging up the roots, and drying the bark, 
a proper division of work is assigned to the several sections. The 
peons transport the bundles of bark, weighing about 150 pounds, 
to large depositories, whereby many succumb to their immoderate 
exertions and often insufhcient nourishment ; others are carried 
away by malarial fever, so that not unfrequently one-fourth 
of the men suffer destruction. The final sorting and pack- 
ing in serons 1 (heavy sacking is at the present time meet- 
ing with increased use), as also the aclmixture of inferior barks, 
takes place mostly in the magazines, “ bodegas,” of the seaports. 
It is said that only a few bark dealers are ultimately successful in 
accumulating wealth. 

The thinner bark of the less developed portions of the stem 
rolls up, upon drying, into quills ( canutos , canutillos ), while the 
pieces stripped from the stronger stems are very often made to 
receive their flat form ( plancha , tabla ) by placing them for a short 
time one upon another and loading with weights, 2 then exposing to 
the sun, and repeating this treatment several times. 

After drying, the barks are either sorted, chiefly according to 
their size, or all are packed together, without distinction, in sacks 
of manilla-hemp (the bast of the agave-like Fourcroya), or in linen 
or cotton material, in the form of bales, containing about 100 
pounds. In some places, as at Popayan, the bark is even stamped, 
in order to reduce it to the smallest possible bulk. The large 
dealers of the seaport towns then enclose the bark in raw 
lock hicle ( zurron ), which, having been previously moistened, com- 
presses the contents most firmly upon drying. In many places, 
particularly in the neighborhood of Loxa, wooden chests are also 
employed for the transportation of the bark. 

In the domain of the Cordilleras the transportation of the barks 

1 Zurron signifies in Spanish a pouch or bag made from cowhide. or also the hide itself. 

2 The handsome frontispiece in Weddell’s Hist. nat. des Quinquinas represents this 

occupation in the forest of San Juan del Ora, province of Carabaya ? P 



over the pathless mountains is attended with great difficulties, 
which frequently forbid the employment of direct routes ; in most 
cases also serving to prevent the exportation of bad barks, which 
would not repay collection. Karsten, as also Wellcome, thus ex- 
plains the reasons which occasionally compel the bark dealers of 
the upper Cauca valley, in the districts of Popayan, Pitayo, 
Almaguer, and Pasto, not to take the route to the nearest seaport 
of Buenaventura, and not directly to descend the Cauca, with its 
numerous cataracts, but rather the elevated passes of Quindiu 
01 (nearly 4000 meters = 1 300 feet above the level of the sea) and 
Huanacas in the valley of the Magdalena river. But also upon 
the latter a relading must take place near Honda, before the barks 
can continue theirvoyage to Baranquilla, at the mouth of the river, 
and reach the near seaports of Sabanilla and Carthagena. The 
export from these Columbian places has recently become very 

It is only exceptionally that cinchona barks, for instance those 
from H nanu co on the Ucayali and other tributaries of the Ama- 
zon, have been conveyecl to the Atlantic coast, to Para. 1 

In the year 1819 Calisaya bark was conveyed by land along the 
Paraguay and its tributaries, or down the stream, to Buenos 
Ayres. 2 

For Ecuador the ports of Esmeraldas and Guayaquil are of im- 
portance, while the export from the more central ports of Peru is 
less considerable. The Southern ports, Islay, Iquique, and especially 
Arica, receive the barks from Carabaya and the high valleys ( Yun- 
gas ) of Bolivia. 

The regulär Settlements of Cinchonas, which are now in a state 
of progressive development in many lands, especially in India, acl- 
mit of much more rational management, and a planless felling and 
Stripping of the trees is there out of the question. 

With regard to the collection of the barks, two methods are 
competitive in their claims for superiority — the treatment with moss, 
or “mossing,” and the felling System, or “coppicing.” The former 
consists in separating from the stem vertical Strips of bark, cnly 
about 4 centimeters (1^2 inches) in width, and afterwards envelop- 
ing the stem in moss. The bark renews itself very speedily on 
the denuded places, becomes stronger than before, and even richer 
in alkaloid. In India, clay is now beginning to be employed instead 

1 Compare Howard’s description of such a direct importation of cinchona bark into 
England. Seeman’s Journal of Botanv, VI (1868), p. 323; also my essay in Vorwerk’s 
Neues Jahrbuch für Pharmacie, XXXI (1869), p. 15. 

2 H. von Bergen, Monogr. der China , p. 287. 



of moss, and in Java the Alang-Alang grass (Imperata Konigii) is 
applied to this purpose. When the covering of the peeled stems 
is effected by either of these methods, there is to be distinguished : 
i, the unaltered bark, which is first removed ; 2, the strips of bark 
which are allowed to reinain, and afterward subjected to treatment 
with moss — the so-called “mossed bark;” and 3, the “renewed 
bark.” If it is indeed possible through a long series of years to 
separate the bark of the Cinchona trees in strips, as above de- 
scribed, and even to effect an increase of alkaloid, at least in the 
renewed bark, this method woulcl possess much that is alluring. It 
remains, however, questionable whether the trees are thereby 
capable of regaining strength. The mossing process was discov- 
ered and very strongly recommended by Mac Ivor, the meritorious 
director of the Cinchona plantations at Ootacamund. 1 

Greater security for the maintenance of the trees is perhaps 
presented in the procedure suggested by Bernelot Moens, in Java, 
in the year 1880, according to which the bark is not removed to 
the extent of its full development, butonly “scraped.” Much more 
care also is taken to leave a sufficient coating of bark on the entire 
circumference of the stem. 

The idea readily suggested itself, in the case of the Cinchonas, to 
employ that form of utilization which admits of application with 
woody plants, as far as this relates to the most abundant obtain- 
ment of a constituent or a definite amount of such, entirely without 
consideration of the further development of the plant itself. This 
is the method of Stripping, which is in use in Europe, especially in 
the case of the oaks, 2 also in Sicily, with regard to the manna-ash, 3 
and in Ceylon with cinnamon. 4 The Cinchonas are subjected to ä 
similar treatment the more willingly, since the root barks, which fall 
off by the occasional Clearing of the cinchona plantations, haveproved 
themselves very valuable. According to this method of procedure, 
or coppicing, which is now customary, especially in Java and Cey- 
lon, the stem, at the age of about 8 years, is felled 15 centimeters 
(6 mches) above the ground, and stripped, whereupon side-shoots 
develop, which, after another 8 years, furnish bark rieh in alkaloid 
By this stnpping process the roots may also be obtained in pro- 
portionate amount ; an Operation especially related to this is dis- 
tinguished as “ uprooting.” The root barks, which were formerly 

menüonefif 'Sektion in the r illustra ted publications of Mac Ivor. 

— * "P«* of 

Compare Flückiger, Pharmakognosie , p. 473. 

3 Ibid - P- 21 ‘ 4 Ibid, p. 565. 



neglected, have uniformly revealecl themselves to be remarkably 
rieh in alkaloid. 3 

It can only be conclusively decided by longer experience whether 
coppicing or mossing is permanently entitled to preference. 
Fui ther Information on this subject is contained, among others, in 
the English Blue Book on the Indian Cinchona plantations of 1877. 

Broughton has shown that the amount of alkaloids appears to 
diminish somewhat upön drying. He finds it most advisable to 
dry the bark without delay, but at the lowest possible tempera- 
tu re. 1 In Java the employment of artificial heat has been consid- 
ered. The moisture contained in fresh Indian barks may easily 
amount to over 70 per cent.; the bark which is used for exporta- 
tion, compared with the powdered bark dried at i2o°C. (248 0 F.), 
retains on an average, according to the determinations of Bernelot 
Moens, 13.5 per cent. of water. 



With regard to the development of the bark, the Cinchonas show 
some distinctions. Many are distinguished from an early age by 
an abundant exfoliation of the outer surface. This is especially the 
case in C. Calisaya, with its bork scales attaining as much as 1 centi- 
meter (J^-inch) in thickness, and also in C. micrantha, while in 
others a voluntary ejection of the cork or bork takes place to a 
less extent, and in these it is not so readily removed, even by 

Other species succumb to the peculiar bork formation only at an 
advanced age, and only on the lower portions of the stem and on 
the root. 

In the barks of younger stems or branches, a grayish, sometimes 
light, sometimes blackish color predominates ; the outer surface of 
thicker stems, on the contrary, displays a more characteristic brown, 
yellow or reddish color, which is particularly prominent after the 
removal of the corky layers. Although differences in the tint of 
the bark may be produced by the locality, and especially by the 
manner of drying, yet Karsten nevertheless gives prominence to 
the permanency of their inner fundamental color on the stem, and 
on the branches and twigs of the same species. 

In the fresh condition, however, these colors are very pale, and 
it is only after peeling, and especially upon drying, that they fully 

1 Blue Book , 1870, p. 239. 



acquire their peculiar tint. The light grayish-yellow or yellowish-red 
bark of C. micrantha begins to assume a blood-red color imme- 
diately after its Separation ; the white bark of C. australis changes 
to a rust color, as soon as the external layer which has been beaten 
soft is removed. In C. Calisaya the fresh bark is externally of a light 
greenish-yellow color; in C. pubescens, of a dirty white or green. 

These colors are indeed subject to some final Variation, accord- 
ing to whether the drying of the bark is effected more or less quickly 
by a fire, or by allowing it to remain exposed to the air and sun, 
whereby, frequently through rain and dew, the barks again become 
moist. The remarkable change of color of the fresh bark always 
remains a noteworthy characteristic of the true Cinchonas. 

In the color of the bark a serviceable means is presented for the 
characterization of the barks individually, or at least for forming 
the varieties into groups. The older investigators of this subject, 
as also the bark collectors themselves, have, therefore, not improp- 
erly referred to these distinctions as : Quina amai'illa (yellow), 
blanca (white), colorada or roja (red), naranjada (orange), negrilla 
(brown), etc. The plates of the works mentioned under numbers 
2, 6 and 37 in section XVIII give a very good representation of 
the colors of most Cinchona barks. 

The Cinchona barks in their structure do not display any more 
remarkable peculiarities than many other barks ; and that which 
imparts to them particular features may be comprised in the follow- 
ing Statements. 

The formation of cork ( pemderm ) takes place in the primary 
bark in the zone of tissue located nearest to the inner surface of 
the epidermis. The cork cells of the barks of the true Cinchonas 
which occur in commerce are thin-walled, and show the usual tabu- 
lar form and radial arrangement (Plate VII, A. C. e). The younger 
barks are usually still covered with cork, but in older ones this’ is 
not always the case. Even the older barks of Cinchona succirub- 
ra, for example, still occur in commerce with the cork adherino-, 
while the equally strong stem-barks of C. Calisaya yield to the 
foimation of bork and do not present the uninjured cork, which, in 
consequence of the formation of corky bands in the inner tissue 
is thrown off together with the outer bark. The cascarilleros ap- 
propnately designate the shallow trough-shaped bork cavities 
which are thus formed as Conckas, on account of their resemblance to 
Hat musseis. Where they are longitudinally extended and also pos- 
sibly coalesce, they present an appearance as though havino- been 
ormed by impressions of the fingers. These conchas are present 
to the most stnking extent in the stem-barks of C. Calisaya 



ihe originally collenchymatous outer bark, situated beneath the 
cork, is built up of cells of considerable size, which are more or 
less extended in a tangential direction (Plate VII, A. C. o). The 
uniformity of this tissue (without considering the interior cork for- 
mation) is thereby interrupted, in that its often coarse, porous cells 
become, either singly or in large numbers, sclerotic. Such stone- 
cells (Plate VII, C. k) are, in the dried bark, either empty or filled 
with a crystalline powder of calcium oxalate, or contain a reddish- 
brown, solid, occasionally granulär substance, which, without suffi- 
cient foundatien, has been designated as resin. The stone-cells 
(sclerotic cells) vary in their form without regularity, so that it must 
be regarded as superfluous to distinguish thern as cubical cells, as 
spherical, or upon the transverse section tangentially extended 
stone-cells. A discrimination according to their contents, as crystal- 
cells and resin-cells, is likewise of no greater importance. In the 
direction of the axis, the stone-cells of the Cinchona barks exhibit 
no considerable extension. Tliey appear in the bark, either scat- 
tered singly or united in groups, but never representing actually 
closed circles of large dimensions, as in so many other barks: e.g., 
that of Guaiacum officinale, 1 Ouassia amara, 2 and Strychnos Nux 
vomica. 3 In many Cinchona barks, the stone-cells are uniformly 
wanting: e.g., in the Calisaya and the red bark; in others they 
occur sparingly, and in many they are found abundantly, and also 
in the bast, as, for instance, in Cinchona latifolia. 

On the boundary of the bast, but always only on the inner side 
of the parenchyma of the outer bark, isolated ducts of very con- 
siderable size are frequently observable, which, upon a trans- 
verse section (Plate VII, A. p), present a circular or tangentially 
extended outline, and in circumference, but not in the thickness of 
the walls, surpass the neighboring parenchyma cells. In the larger 
diameter they frequently attain over 200 micromillimeters (C. succi- 
rubra), in C. boliviana, even more than 500, but are also often 
diminished to less than from 40 to 50 micromillimeters. 

On a longitudinal section, these milk tubes or lacticiferous ducts 
do not appear extended in length; their obtuse ends are closed, 
and they are usually isolated, or from two to three arranged in a 
row before the last bast-wedges, without, however, having any defi- 
nite relation to the latter. Ön a transverse section, the lacticiferous 
ducts therefore form a but slightly regulär, sometimes repeated, 

1 Compare Fliickiger, Pharmakognosie, second edition, 1882, p. 453. 

2 Ibid, p. 459. 

3 The same work, first edition, 1867, p. 4 2 7- Möller, Anatomie der Baumrinden, 1882, ' 
pp. 162, 419. 



and often approximately closed circle. In cases where they remain 
small, they may be easily overlooked when the sections are softened 
with potassa instead of the less destructive alkali ammonia. 

According to Karsten the lacticiferous ducts occur in the 
youngest branches of all or nearly all Cinchonas and their nearest 
allies, but in individual species they remain very narrow and soon 
become quite insignificant ; a change which is also in part thereby 
effected, that in their interior a new formation of parenchymatous 
cells takes place. 1 

Although these lacticiferous ducts can scarcely be considered as a 
peculiarity of individual Cinchonas, they are, indeed, wanting in some 
commercial barks, and are retained in a state of preservation in 
others, in so far as the entire outer bark has not become complete- 
ly destroyed by the formation of bork. 

The lacticiferous ducts may, moreover, according to Weddell, 2 
be best traced in the medulla of living branches, especially near 
the nodes of young axes. 

More important points of discrimination are afforded by the bast 
of the Cinchona barks (Plate VII, B. C. v), which, in consequence 
of the removal of the bork, represents exclusively some varieties 
of commercial bark (Plate VII, B). It is intersectecl by medullary 
rays (Plate VII, v), which radiate from the wood in 3, or at most 4 
parallel rows (large medullary rays, chief medullary rays). The 
cells of the medullary rays are almost invariably larger than those 
of the bast parenchyma, and increase toward the exterior in width 
as also in the number of the individual rows. In the tissue of the 
medullary rays, especially in the outermost layers, isolated cells 
often become thickened to stone-cells (Plate VII, C) ; still more 
frequently many contain a crystalline powder, and also without 
becoming lignified. 

The bast contains as its most prominent constituent spindle- 
shaped fibies (Plate VII, s c), which are extendecl in the direction 
of the axis, and whose walls become thickened at a very early 
period. When the cells become thickened to a less extent, and do 
not terminate in a point, they are distinguished as staff-cells , or 
staff-shapecl stone-cells. 

In the younger barks of most species the bast-fibres are found 
spanngly scattered, but with increased age they multiply consider- 
ably m number, lose their cavity almost completely, and press back 
the surrounding bast-parenchyma quite strongly. Ona transverse 

p. 5 5 C 8° mpareVOg1 ’ Chinarinden des Wiener Grosshandels,?. 12; De Bary, Anatomie, 

2 Hist, nat. des Quinquinas, Tab. I. Fig. 26. 



section the fibres appear in distinct and very neatly arranged 
layers, which are traversed by fine canal-like pores; 1 in outline 
they are spherical or angular, frequently somewhat extended in a ra- 
dial direction, and the cavity mostly confined to a dark fissure or a 
point. Since the bast-fibres terminate at the ends in a point, which, 
however, is notactually sharp, the dimensions of a transverse section 
at different heights is subject to Variation. The larger diameter of 
the strongest fibres attains to about 200 micromillimeters, but is 
usually only one-half or one-third of this size. 

On a longitudinal section the bast-fibres of the Cinchonas are 
seen to be proportionately shorter than the corresponding cells of 
many other barks, although their length is within the limits of ordi- 
nary measurements, and easily amounts to front 2 to 3 millimeters. 
They present themselves, in so far as they do not stand completely 
isolated, with their pointed ends wedged above and between each 
other, and never transversely connected, but rather always either 
simply curved, or at the most, sabre-shaped ; they are, however, 
mostly spindle-shaped. In consequence also of their shining yellow 
or yellowish-red color they may readily be observed in the other 

The transverse sections of strong bast-fibres are very hand- 
some objects in polarized light, in that they display ä black cross, 
and besides, with only slightly thicker sections, vivid colors in the 

The finer spiral rudiments of their structure can only be observed 
when the bast-fibres have first been boiled in hydrochloric acid, and 
subsequently placed in an ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper. 2 

The bast-fibres of the true Cinchonas are characterized by their 
consiclerable thickness and lignification, as also by their simple form 
and pointed ends. Although in the beginning making their appear- 
ance in an isolated form in the youngest axes, they afterward 
arrange themselves in various ways, so that the individual species 
of Cinchona are also to a certain extent characterized by their 
peculiarities in this respect. 

The bast of the Cinchona barks, i. e., that of the true Cinchonas, 
does not appear distinctly reticulated. Even where lignified bast- 
fibres occur in large numbers, they do not form groups of large 
dimensions, nor branched, long and compact bundles; 3 and espe- 

1 De Bary, Vergleichende Anatomie der Vegetationsorgane, 1877, p. 139. 

2 Compare Hofmeister, Verhandlungen der sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu 
Leipzig, X (1858), p. 32 ; Flückiger, Grundlagen der pharm. Waarcnkunde, 1873, p. 36, 
Fig. 11, 12. 

3 Compare De Bary, Anatomie, p. 544. 



cially at the point of the bast-weclges, on the boundary of the outer 
bark, they occur only very much scattered (Plate VII, A). 

The sieve-tubes in the Cinchona barks of commerce are usually 
very much collapsed, and therefore can only be isolated with con- 
siderable difficulty. 1 

While in the young barks the soft bast predominates, this pro- 
portion becomes graclually changed in favor of the greater or less 
development of the sclerotic fibres. The bark of the same species 
must, therefore, in accordance with its age, present a very dissimi- 
lar appearance, and consequently afford but a deceptive criterion 
for the purpose of diagnosis, even when within certain boundaries 
the specific peculiarity is maintained. 

The barks of the individual Cinchonas present some prominent 
distinctions, especially with regard to the more or less considerable 
number of stone-cells, as in some barks such sclerotic cells are en- 
tirely wanting. The barks furthermore differ from each other with 
relation to the arrangement of the bast-fibres. The considerable 
thickness, the simple, spindle-shaped, compact form, and the not 
very large number of these bast-fibres, impart to the Cinchona barks 
a definite character, which is not possessed by the barks of the 
most closely related species that have as yet been examined. 
That, however, intermediate representatives are not wanting, is 
illustrated by the “Cinchona rosa,” as described on page 49. 
Among themselves the Cinchona barks display, indeed, great uni- 
formity ; and in many figures, such as are given by Berg 2 , for ex- 
ample, no decided characteristics are rendered prominent, when 
they are compared with each other. 




Most of the cells of the true, as also of the false Cinchona barks 
which are not lignified, or not completely so, with the exception of 
those of the cork cambium and the crystal ducts, are so abundantly 
filled with coloring matter, which also penetrates the walls, that 
their other constituents, as also their structure, is only plainly per- 
ceptible when the coloring matters are to some extent removed, 
an Operation which is best effected by ammoniacal alcohol. Even 
the cork frequently contains Cinchona-red, and in the innermost, 

1 A description of them is given by Möller, Baumrinden, pp. 132 138 

strlc\ n ureof7h?nnS 0neC l U i der SeCti ° n XVI11 - With re S ard tö the peculiarities of 
ÄS pp *2 13S m C ° mpariSOn Wlth other Rubiaceae, see Möller, Baum- 


still living layers, small starch granules. The same are also found 
in the parenchyma of the bark itself, although not very abundantly. 
The ou termost layers of young barks contain, moreover, also 
Chlorophyll granules. 

The already mentioned, extremely small and slightly developed 
cry stals of calcium oxalate, are deposited here and there in the 
parenchyma of the true Cinchonas, so that all the cells containing 
crystals by no means possess lignified or even only thickened 
walls ; the stone-cells enclosing oxalate are altogether of even less 
frequent occurrence. Larger, often well developed crystals, are 
contained in the barks of those trees which are related to the Cin- 
chonas, as in the Cinchona cuprea, and, as it appears, also usually 
in greater abundance. In others, vertical rows of cells containing 
crystals are found in the bast, while in the Cinchona barks these 
only occur isolated. 

In addition to these universally distributed substances, the 
peculiar constituents of the Cinchona barks do not admit of direct 
observation by means of the microscope. 

Oudemans ( Aanteekeningen , etc., of the Pharmacopceia Neerlan- 
dica, 1854 to 1856, p. 221) had already observed the occurrence 
of crystals in Cinchona Calisaya and Cinchona rubra. Howard, in 
1862, in the Nueva Quinologia of Pavon (Plate II of the micro- 
scopic figures), and in 1870, in the first part of the “East Indian 
Plantations,” figured crystals which exhibit themselves in the paren- 
chyma of Cinchona barks when thin sections of the same are 
warmed for a moment with caustic alkali, and the latter removed 
as speedily as possible. Howard declares these crystals to be the 
chinovates of the cinchona bases, and considers that they are already 
deposited in a crystalline form 1 in the respective barks, as, for 
instance, in Ledger’s Calisaya bark, where these crystals are said 
to be already visible without further treatment of the section. By 
the examination of a bark kindly furnished me by Howard, I was 
u nable to convince myself that such crystals were originally present 
therein ; they presumably consist of the alkaloids which have been 
liberatecl by the action of the alkali. 

Through my investigation, 2 as also that of Müller, 3 it is known 
that the alkaloids are located in the parenchyma of the Cinchona 
barks and not in the bast-fibres. Carles 4 has likewise confirmed 
these observations. 

1 Kerner finds the chinovates of the cinchona bases to be uncrystallizable. 

2 Wiggers-Husemann’s Jahresbericht der Pharmakognosie, etc., 1866, p. 82; Howard, 
Quinology of the East Indian Plantations, 1869, p. 33. 

3 In Pringsheim’s Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Botanik, 1866, p. 238. 

4 Journal de Pharmacie, 16, (1873), p. 22. 





If the anatomical relations of the true Cinchona barks are sum- 
marized, it is manifest that they owe their peculiar character as well 
to the totality of the former as also particularly to the nature and 
position of their lignified bast-fibres. This appears very prominent 
in distinction to the other Cinchoneae which are so closely connected 
in the System, the structure of which, however, has as yet only been 
described in a few instances. 1 In many of the latter, the lacticife- 
rous ducts are much more perfectly developed, and the sclerenchyma 
forms likewise, even in the outer bark, large and often vertically 
extended bundles ; the bast, however, deviates most from the above- 
described type of the Cinchonas, as has already been shown on 
page 38. The bast-fibres of many of the false Cinchonas are thin, 
by far not completely lignified, on a transverse section exhibiting a 
significant cavity, and usually roundish. On a longitudinal section 
they display considerable length, and as strong, often net-like, 
transversely connected fibres, impart to the entire tissue a coherence 
which the short, simple fibres of the Cinchonas are not able to give. 

In many of the false barks, the parenchyma of the bast also 
performs a more significant part, whether it be that its regularly 
arranged tangential zones, alternating with fibre-bundles, cause a 
reticulated appearance, or whether the inner half of the bast is built 
up, to a largely predominating extent, of parenchyma. The tissue 
of these barks also receives hereby fargreater firmness and tenacity 
than the Cinchona barks. 

These clistinctions are then also perfectly adequate to discrimi- 
nate between the barks of the Cinchonas and those of the other 
allied genera. 

. As in m any barks, the transverse fracture of the Cinchona barks 
is also subject to Variation in the inner and the outer portions. 
The lattei, consisting ot the cork and the parenchyma of the outer 
bark, break uniformly and short, in so far as dead portions of the 
bast are not, through the formation of bork, drawn into the ex- 
ternal coating or periderma. 

In Opposition to this uniform, quite smooth, so-called corky 
iracture, the inner layer of stronger barks does not present an 
even fractured surface but there project therefrom isolated, com- 
pact bundles of fibres, which are extended in the direction of the axis. 

Fl„ck*er .Jeekrest, rieht der PHannaeü, ,S 7 , . £ 95 : vÄJÄÄ.1 



Weddell was the first to emphasize that the appearance of the 
fracture of the Cinchona barks is subject to Variation, according to 
the size and the arrangement of the bast-fibres. To these short, 
not mterlaced fibres, the Cinchona barks owe particularly the <r reat 
brittleness. & 

d he root-bai k of the true Cinchonas appears to possess in 
general the structure of the bark of the stem or branches, and 
particularly to be much inclined to the formation of bork. 

Among the chief varieties which hitherto came from South 
America, and which received the preference for pharmaceutical 
applications, the following are to be particularly mentioned: — 


^ After Jussieu had already traversed the region of the Cinchona 
Calisaya, Rubin de Celis, 1 in 1776, and Thaddäus Hänke, 2 in 1791, 
called attention to the value of their bark, so that the latter, since 
about the year 1789, acquired ever increasing significance, although 
the tree itself was first made known by Weddell (see page 16). 
In commerce there is found the entire bark of the branches, in the 
form of quills, as also the flat stem bark deprived of the bork, and 
indeed : — 

(a) The former under the names of Cortex Cinchonce (China) 
regius , convo/utus, Cinchona ( China ) calisaya cum epidermide , Cali- 
saya tecta s. tubulata; Quill Calisaya; Ger., Gerollte or bedeckte 
Königschina ; Fr., Quinquina Calisaya roule. It forms quills 3 
to 4 centimeters (1 to i l / 2 inches) in thickness, which are mostly 
rolled inward at both edges (double quills), of a dark grayish- 
brown color, or whitish, and having coarse, irregulär, longitudinal 
channels and furrows, which, however, in general are to a certain 
extent uniformly arranged, and intersected by cleep transverse 
fissures, which frequently extend over the entire periphery. Re- 
ticulations with elevated edges and a usually somewhat more finely 
furrowed surface are hereby formed, which readily become detached, 
and still permit the recognition of their outlines on the outer sur- 
face of the cinnamon-brown inner bark. The inner surface is of a 
brownish-yellow color, and accurately striped in a vertical direction 
by the bright bast-fibres; the fracture is purely fibrous, but exter- 
nally darker and shorter. 

1 A Spanish marine officer. 

2 Hänke was born in the year 1761 at Kreibitz in Bohemia, and in 1790 went to South 
America with the Spanish expedition under Malaspina. He located, in 1796, at Cocha- 
bamba in Bolivia, rcpeatedly visited the districts where Cinchona bark is collected, and 
died in 1817, upon his estate at Buxacaxey, in the province of Cochabamba. Petermann, 
Geogr. Mittheilungen , VII (1867), 264. 



The outer bark exhibits practically no stone-cells or only a few 
isolated ones, but contains a single or double circle of lacticiferous 
ducts, which, however, soon disappear. 

The bark of the Indian Calisaya Ledgeriana (see page 17), in 
consequence of its much higher percentage of alkaloid, now fur- 
nishes a complete substitute for the American bark. Many of the 
varieties formerly known as Loxa Bark , and derived from different 
Cinchonas, are especially distinguished from the bark of the twigs 
of Calisaya by the less reticulated outer surface. 

(b) The bast of the stem as Cinchona (China) regia plana , 
Cinchona (China) regia sine epidermide ; Flat Calisaya ; Ger., 
Flache, platte, unbedeckte Königschina ; Fr., Calisaya plat. 

Flat pieces, of a foot or several feet in length, often nearly 2 
decimeters (8 inches) in width and from 5 to 15 millimeters to 
S4 inch) in thickness, and of that particularly handsome pure color 
which is designated as a type of the yellow varieties of Cinchona ; 
indeed, the approach to a reddish-yellow tint is often scarcely per- 
ceptible. The outer surface, by the action of the air, is frequently 
darker, at least in spots, and in consequence of the conchas (see 
P a §" e 35 ) m ore or less, often to the highest degree, irregulär; the 
inner surface does not always exhibit parallel stripes, as in the 
barks of the branches, but is often wavy. In this case, the bast 
bundles ot the different layers occasionally separate from the frac- 
tured surface in a diverging direction. This variety of bark is highly 
characterized by its soft tissue; even with the finger-nail one can, 
without efifort, separate the pointed fibres, which reaclily penetrate 
the skin. 

On the edges of the conchas there a rule, only a few easily 
detached boi k-scales. The bast, of which, without consideration of 
the interior corlc bands, the bark alone consists, displays sometimes 
more and sometimes less plainly radial, occasionally also almost 
tangential, rows of fibres. Here and there from 2 to 4 of these 
lows come in direct contact, but otherwise they always occur seDa- 
rated by the abundant parenchyma. 

The flat Calisaya bark from Bolivia, which until within a few 
years maintained a high character, has latterly occurred in com- 
merce with a very much diminished percentage of alkaloid It 
was occasionally confused with the bark of a south Peruvian spe- 
cies 1 Cinchona scrobiculata Humboldt et Bonpland. Their uncov- 
ered bast-plates resemble to a high degree those of the flat Cali- 
saya, but are distinguished, however, especially upon being moist- 

1 Figure in Humb. et Bonp., Plantes equinoct 
Quinquinas, Plate VII. 

t. 47; also Weddell's Hist. nat. des 



ened, by their plainly reddish and often fiery color, and by greater 
compactness and fibrous fracture. The parenchyma of the outer 
bar k is rieh in stone-cells, and contains also in younger pieces lac- 
ticiferous ducts. No other cinchona shows a so plainly radially 
arranged bast. 4 he fibres ol the latter form upon a transverse 
section, long, mostly one-lined radial rows, in which often upon large 
spaces only here and there a small parenchyma-cell occurs. The 
bast-fibres are present in such large numbers that in the inner 
layers they predominate to a considerable extent. 

This bark, which appears to contain regularly only a small per- 
centage of alkaloid, finds its way into commerce under many 
designations in the pure state, as also mixed with Calisaya. Thus 
in Cusco it is commonly termed Cascanlla colorada or Cascarilla 
de Santa Ana ; in Europe it is known as light Calisaya, reddish 
Calisaya, Carabaya, or red Cusco bark, Cinchona (China) peruvi- 
ana, and Calisaya fibrosa. 

In the illustrations of the bark, the coloring by Delondre and 
Bouchardat, Plate 3 , although not absolutely accu rate, is much more 
correctly reproduced than in WeddeH’s Plate XXVIII, where the 
color agrees altogether too closely with that of Calisaya. 


The cork is at first grayish, afterwarcls whitish or yellowish, 
glistening, soft and readily exfoliating. The bast is yellow or 
reddish-yellow ; the bark parenchyma is still in part retained, even 
in the quite strong, flat trunk barks of as much as 1 centimeter 
(3/£ inch) in thickness, as they usually occur in commerce ; for it 
is only at a late periocl that the true formation of bork takes place. 
The outer bark is distinguished by a number of tangentially ex- 
tendecl stone-cells, which often form a nearly connected layer (Plate 
VII, C). The moderately thick bast-fibres are in single or double 
radial rows, connected at intervals, and having an occasional tend- 
ency to a tangential grouping in the interior. In the bast there are 
numerous staff-cells, and not unfrequently there are also the same 
stone-cells as in the outer bark; the latter form of cells occurs quite 
as frequently in the medullary rays. 

The bark breaks with a fine splintery, sometimes short and some- 
times long fracture, and is founcl in different varieties, which, by sub- 
ordinate characteristics, deviate somewhat in appearance and struc- 
ture. It is nevertheless possible that they may be referred to 
several Cinchonas. 

In this place belong the varieties of cinchona designated as flava 
fibrosa , then the Calisaya ofi Santa Fc de Bogota, Quma anaranjada 



of Mutis, the Caqiteta bark of the English, more correctly Caqueza 
(after the place of this name not far from Bogota), the Carthagene 
ligneux of the French, etc. Manybarks of Cinchona rubiginosa of 
formen times were derivecl likewise from C. lancifolia. 

Karsten, as also the Consul Rampon, 1 whose opinions are 
based upon personal observations at the place itself, give promin- 
ence to the fact that C. lancifolia, which is botanically so variable, 
furnishes also, indeed, barks of very different appearance. The best 
varieties are called in New Granada, columbian ; the less valuable 
bear the name of Carthagena Barks. 


The bark of small, one and-a-half year old trees, which in its moist 
condition is only i millimeter inch) in thickness, e. g., from 
Hakgalle in Ceylon, consists only to the extent of ^3 of the bast 
layer, wherein entirely isolated or groups of from 2 to 3 bast fibres 
occur, which are mostly already lignified. The boundary of the 
outer bark is designated by wide lacticiferous ducts, which, occur- 
ring usually to the number of two before a bast ray, represent a 
very interrupted circle. 

Even by a thickness of about 5 millimeters (} inch) the rela- 
tion of the two layers of bark becomes so altered that the bast 
begins to predominate, and deposits its beautiful dark red fibres in 
very large numbers. The latter are in interrupted radial rows, 
separated by narrow Strips of quite small-celled parenchyma, and 
toward the interior by a tangential arrangement, affording also at 
the same time, in places, an almost reticulated appearance. 

A multiplication of the lacticiferous ducts is not prominent, but 
they become gradually enlarged, and by the development of the 
bark remain tor a long time mtact, as lt is only at a late period 
that the foimation of bork occurs. Pieces of bark over 12 milli- 
meters {y 2 inch) in thickness (in their dry condition), still display 
lacticiferous ducts. 

rrl 16 i e -T ctlon ,°f peridermis takes place with much greater 
clirficulty than with C. Calisaya, so that even strong trunk barks of 
the red cinchona still bear a firmly adhering, more grayish-black 
than red. external coating, even by a well defined development of 
the interior cork. 

According to Von Bergen, the Red Cinchona was already dis- 
tributed in North Germany at the beginning of the eighteenth 
Century, and Condamine makes mention of it, in the year 1737 as 
the best Cinchona; it may, e. g. t with reference to the description 

1 In Planchon (Title under section xviii) 95. 



of Mutis (p. 48), remain undecided whether it was always really the 
bark of C. succirubra. 1 Ihe formerly quite extensive exports of fine 
trunk barks of this Cinchona from Guayaquil have long since 
considerably decreased. On the other hand, branch barks of the 
same from Ceylon and from the peninsula of India, as also from 
the other Cinchona plantations, are brought in ever increasing 
amounts into commerce. 

The American Red Cinchona, in accordance with Howard’s 
proposition, was referred in 1857 by Klotzsch and H. Schacht 2 to 
C. succirubra. 

For the Classification of the Cinchona barks the color was adopt- 
ed as a principal characteristic, until the study of their anatomical 
structure appeared in the foreground. It may be accepted that 
the fundamental color of the barks of one species does not remain 
the same at all periods of life ; C. succirubra, e. g., shows that the 
special color first appears with absolute definiteness at an advanced 
age. Younger barks of most species are, as a rule, covered with 
a grayish-white or sometimes brownish or nearly blackish cork, 
which only in the extremes of its color or in the form of its outer 
surface is able to afford points of discrimination. Still more indefi- 
nite and predominatingly brownish is the color of the inner tissue, 
so that mixtures of the most different quill barks taken from the 
twigs or younger trunks bear the general naine of Cortex Cincho- 
na [China) fnscus. As of equal signification the usually less ap- 
propriate designation of Cortex Cinchona [China) gnseus seu 
pallidus is applied, with reference to the external coating, as also 
the appellations, quite common with the French, of Quinquinas gns 
ou brun , and the English expressions, Pale Cinchona Bark , Gray 

As the most important of the brown varieties, is to be mentioned 
the Cinchona from the district of Huänuco, in central Peru, which 
is exported by way of Lima, and named after these two cities. It 
usually consists of quills, which, after being moistened, are from 1 
to 2 centimeters to ^ inch) in circumference and from 2 to 5 
millimeters to - inch) in diameter. Its grayish-brown, and in 
general quite bright external surface, is somewhat furrowed longi- 
tudinally, provided with transverse fissures, which are rnostly not 
very deep and do not extend over the entire periphery, and often 
still covered with whitish cork. The inner surface is of a bright 

1 Comparc also thcrewith, Murray, Apparatur medicammutn, VI (i79 2 )> 44- 

2 "On the Origin of the Red Cinchona Bark of Commerce, "Abhandlungen der Akad- 
emie der Wissetisch, zu Berlin, 1858, pp. 51-78. 



cinnamon color, and frequently finely sprinkled with white, in con- 
sequence of the cells of the medullary rays, which contain oxalate. 
A transverse section shows directly beneath the outer bark a so- 
called resin ring. 

A species belonging in this category, namely, the bark of Cin- 
chona nitida Ruiz et Pavon, which is designated as Pata de gallina- 
zo, affords an excellent example of the fantastic names with which 
the Cascarilleros provide the Cinchona Barks. In consequence of 
thecorky warts (lenticels?), asalsoof the Sphseriaceae, which arefound 
upon this bark as well as upon many others, there is formed a pe- 
culiar delineation of the outer surface, which in Peru is designated 
as “vulture claws, "pata de gallinazo. Gallinazo refers in Lima to 
the carrion vulture, Cathartes foetens. 1 Such names are now best 
cleared away by the innovation of the Dutch Government, which 
consists in attaching to the larger packages of Javanese barks the 
results of the analysis and the designation of the mother plant. 

In former times the Huänuco variety consisted chiefly of barks 
of the Cinchona nitida , 2 which grows in large amounts by San 
Cristoval de Cuchero or Cocheros, not far from Huänuco. The 
barks of this district were made known since 1776, by Francisco 
Renquifo and Manuel Alcarraz, and then by Ruiz, Pavon and Dom- 
bey, 3 and finally toward the endof the Century introduced into com- 
merce by merchants from Lima, as gray bark of Huänuco. 

As Loxa or Loja Cinchona , barks are or were exported, which, in 
distinction to the preceding variety, are predominatingly of a dark 
brownish color, have a more gray than whitish coating, and, be- 
side longitudinal wrinkles, exhibit numerous, somewhat distant, 
transverse fissures. The Loxa bark consists mostly of quills having 
a maximum circumference of 1 centimeter inch), and only 
1 to 2 millimeters ( j to -j 2 - inch) in diameter, and is frequently 
abundantly beset with lichens. A sharp transverse section of the 
better sorts of Loxa bark exhibits the glistening “resin ring.” 

As has been previously mentioned (p 19), the district of Loxa 
furnished the first Cinchona barks. At the time of the Spanish 
sovereignty the most select specimens of the same, a yellowish 
and a reddish variety, Cascarilla amarilla dcl Key and Cascarilla 
colorada del Key , were retained for the Spanish Court, and bore for 

1 Markham, Pritchett, Blue Book 1863, 120, 125. I was told, however, by Mr Spruce 
in August 1867, that the expression Pata de gallinazo refers to the fracture of the bark’. 

2 Figure in Weddell, T. 10; Howard, N. Quinologia, T. 20. 

> Joseph Dombey was born in the year 1742, at Mäcon, and went to Peru with Ruiz 
1777 1 he re b Umed t0 Fra f Ce in ^ 785 . but departed again for America in 

Sciences \\\ oUh 1794 Montserrat.— -Cap. Etudes biogr. fiour servir ä l inst, des 

Sciences, 11 (1864); compare also my Pharm. Chemie, pp. 6ii, 890. 



a long- time the name of Cinchona ( China ) corona/ts, which is still 
retained in the English “ffrown Bark,” Ger., Königschina, while 
the adjective regius or regia has been transferred to Calisaya. To 
obtain this original Brown Cinchona, at the time of Humboldt’s 
residence in South America, very young trees were stripped, of 
which from 800 to 900 were required in Order to furnish the 
small amount of 110 hundred-weight of bark, which the Court 

This entire dass of the predominatingly brown South American 
barks comprised several sorts, the discrimination of which reposes 
upon such external characteristics as deprive them of exact scien- 
tific definition. 

The circle of the officinal Cinchona barks was confined there- 
with, on the one hand, to the medium or younger quills of a few 
species, in that, for the accustomed sorts, as above shown, in the 
course of time the same Cinchonas were not always collected, 
and on the other hand to the red-trunk barks and the bast-plates 
of Calisaya. 

All the remaining sorts which occur in commerce, of which here 
also mention is occasionally made, and still others, are of interest 
only for their applications in Chemical industry, and not for phar- 

The plantations of the Cinchonas in India, Jamacia and other 
districts furnish meanwhile mostly still younger barks, in which 
very decided peculiarities are wanting. At the present day more 
importance must be attached to the determination of the amount 
of alkaloid of these barks than to their external appearance. 



Before the alkaloids were known, various other barks found 
their way into commerce, in part without disguise, as a pretended 
substitute for the medicinally active Cinchona barks, and in part 
mixed with the latter, although their inferior value was perceived 
at an early period. Among these false or spurious Cinchona barks 
the only one until recently of any importance was the hard bark 
of Cascarilla magnifolia' Endlicher ( Cinchona oblongifoha Mutis, 
C. magnifolia Pavon, Ladenbergia magnifolia Klotzsch, Buenamag- 
nifolia Wedclell; it is also probable that Karsten’s Cinchona hete- 
rocarpa was nothing eise than this tree.) Mutis, in the year 1780, 

1 Figured in Howard’s N. Qninol., Tab. 10; Karsten’s Fl. Colomb. Tab. VI. 



erroneously clescribed the same as Cascarilla roja , x and later, par- 
ticularly at the beginning of this Century, it was brought in enor- 
mous quantities into commerce as Cinchona ( China ) nova sun- 
namensis , although probably for the most part not from Surinam, 2 
but from New Granada. This stately tree is distributed through 
Columbia and Ecuador, presumably also still more widely, and is 
known as Cascarilla flor de Azahar. Its small white flowers, 
scarcely tinted with red, which indeecl by their downy pubescence 
approximately resemble the Cinchonas, diffuse a fine orange-like 
fragrance. (. Azahar designating in Spanish, orange and lemon). 

This Cinchona nova also occurred from 20 to 30 years ago under 
the name of Cinchona rosea or Cinchona Savanilla , 3 and even as 
Cinchona Valparaiso. It contains no cinchona alkaloid, as one 
may easily become convinced by means of Grahe’s test (see p. 68), 
and is altogether free from alkaloid. 4 At the present time it is not 
found in commerce. 

From an anatomical point of view this bark is positively distin- 
guished from the barks of the Cinchonas, especially with regarcl to 
the obtuse ends of the bast-fibres and the remarkable abundance of 
sieve tubes. The bast-fibres of the “Cinchona (China) nova” are 
much more numerous, thinner, longer, and not so completely ligne- 
fied. The figure of the transverse section 5 agrees very nearly with 
that of Cinchona cuprea (see Plate VIII). When, however, at some 
time the barks of numerous other Cinchoneae shall be compared 
therewith, there is no doubt but that intermediate forms will be 
found. Such an one, e. g ., is to be observed to a certain extent in 
the beautiful rose-red, feebly bitter bark of Condaminea tinctoida 
D. C., 6 which contains not a very large number of strong bast-fibres, 

1 Sec page 17, by Calisaya Ledgeriana. 

2 Muiray, Apparatus Medicaminum, VI, 181,222, was indeed, in 1790, in possession 
of a specimen of this bark from Surinam. It was known that it did not possess the me- 
dicinal power of the true Cinchona. Later Communications relating to this worthless 
bark are contained in the Jahresbericht der Pharm., 1857, p. 40, and 1862, p. 42. 

* Archiv, der Pharm 116(1851)374, and therefrom in the Jahresbericht, 1851 c 2 
Va/pZailo 1 S bai ’ k n ‘ imed by S ° me dru S dealers Cinchona from 

4 Hesse in Fehling’s Neues Handwörterbuch der Chemie., II (1875) tu. 

5 Berg, Chinarinden, Plate X, 27. 

Cinchona laccifera Pavon, Macrocnemum tinctorium Humboldt, 
Bon plan d et Kunth. The genus Condaminea, establisned by De Candolle is distineuished 
Cinchoneae by the fleshy corolla, the conical capsule and the’wingless° seeds 
Tafalla (section 17), had already callcd attention to the bark of this tree which in the 
domain of the upper Orinoco or Paragua furnishes to the natives a red coior It’is also 
probably with 1 regard to this that it has received by the natives the populär designation of 

«SfS oZeJVr. ,h ',v rk ' Pr Sh Humbo,dt ’ h ” d bocom P e Cw„ . 7 a «rtain 

! 7 I aPP ^ ar occ 7 asionall y to have been brought into 
commerce. \ irey, e. g., stated in the Journal de Pharmacie, XIX, (1833)% 199, 



reminding of those of Cinchona bark. The fibres of the Conda- 
minea are, however, thicker, less brittle, of very unequal length 
and thickness, and mostly provided with a considerable cavity. 
As much as this bark 1 is separated from the true Cinchona barks 
in its appearance, it nevertheless, by reason of these bast-fibres, 
approximates more closely to the latter than, e. g. f to the Cinchona 



The remarkable bark, which I designated in the year 1871 as 
Cinchona {China) cuprea , 2 has received much consicleration. It is 
characterized by a peculiar color, which, on the outer surface, 
reminds of somewhat rusty copper Utensils. It was emphatically 
set forth that I did not compare the appearance of this copper- 
colored bark to the color of the bright metal. 

After the Communications of Hesse and myself in regard to the 
Cinchona cuprea (1871), nothing was heard again for a time of this 
bark. It was first at the end of February, 1880, that Mr. J. E. 
Howard informed me that it began to appear, unmixed, in larger 

that Paraguatan bark had been received at Cadiz; O. Henry (ibid, p 201) found it to be 
free from cinchona alkaloids. It is furthermore described in Guibourt’s Histoire natu- 
relle des Drogues simples, III (1869), p 185. Condaminea tinctoria, moreover, grovvs not 
only in the northeastern part of South America, but also in Chili and in the Argentine 
Republic. Mr. Stuckert, an apothecary of Basel, brought the bark of the same from 
Tucuman in 1880, under the name of Cinchona (China) rosa. 

1 The longitudinal section shows, however, great distinctions in comparison with Cin- 
chona barks ; the fibres of the Condaminea bark are much less regularly spindle shaped. 
In the beautiful red decoction which fresh “ Cinchona rosa ” affords, the coloring matter 
is only suspended, not properly dissolved. When this is removed by filtration through 
bole or charcoal, a fluorescent filtrate isobtained, the bluish reflex of which is not destroyed 
by hydrochloric acid, and therefore cannot proceed from quinine. This remarkable 
bark also does not afford the red tar (p 68); nevertheless it is said to contain a trace of 

Very similar to the “ Cinchona rosa,” and perhaps identical therewith, is also the so- 
called Arariba bark, which Rieth describes in Liebig’s Annalen, 120(1861), p. 247, and, 
in accordance with the Statement of Martius, refers it to Arariba rubra, which is entirely 
unknown to me. Its diagnosis will be found in C. Fr. Ph. von Martins’ paper, entitled 
“ Zur Kritik des Gattungscharacters von Cinchona,” as contained in the Sitzungsberichte 
der Münchener Akademie, III (1860), p. 323. Rieth found in the bark the crystallizable 
Ar^bine, C 23 H 20 N 4 , the only solid base which is free fron oxygen. Vogl, on page 17 of the 
commemorative essay mentioned under section 18, No. 35 of this work, describes the 
same bark as Cinchona (China) von Cantagallo, and Möller, Baumrinden, 1882, gives 
on page 142 a good figure of a magnified transverse section of the same. 

2 Vorwerk’s Neues Jahrbuch für Pharmacie und verwandte Fächer, XXXVI (Speier, 
1871), p 296, and therefrom in Wiggers-Husemann's Jahresberichte der Pharm, 1872, p 
132. Mr. J. E. Howard forwarded to me at that time a good specimen of Cinchona 
cuprea, which, as early as 1857, had come under his observation among other barks in 
the London market. He had also already found it to contain quinine, although he had 
not published anything concerning it. Vogl has likewise considered the Cinchona 
cuprea in his commemorative essay, p 98, mentioned under section 18 of this work. 



quantities in the London market, and was eagerly purchased. The 
first imports, according to Paul, 1 occurred as early as June 1879, 
and soon thereafter, notwithstanding the unusual appearance of the 
“Cuprea,” its value was determined to the effect that it contained 
about 2 per cent. of sulphate of quinine and only a small amount of 
the associate alkaloids. De Vrij obtained from the same altogether 
as much even as 5.9 per cent. of alkaloids (Letter of September 23, 
1S82). In May, 1880, large supplies of this bark were already to 
be seen in London, 2 and the subsequent imports directly assumed 
unsuspected dimensions. 

Cinchona cuprea occurs in quite flat or channeled pieces, more 
rarely in quills of scarcely half a meter (20 inches) in length, and 
at the most from 5 to 7 millimeters (-f to ~ inch) in thickness ; but 
by far the predominating amount consists of small fragments, and 
conveys altogether the impression that it can only be derived from 
a tree of small dimensions. The light brown, longitudinally wrin- 
kled or warty cork is usually scraped off, so that the smooth outer 
surface is formed of the tissue of the outer bark, to which pertains the 
previously mentioned color of copper vessels. The outersurface also 
often shows impressions of the incisions of a sharp knife, which areoc- 
casionally but a few millimeters distant from each other, and extend 
in a parallel direction, probably for the purpose of removing the 
cork, and presumably in Order to render prominent the more pleas- 
ing color of the inner tissue. This is indeed so peculiar, in dis- 
tinction to former Cinchona barks, that it mustattract the attention 
of any one who has made himself familiär with the appearance of 
true Cinchona barks ; the copper-colored bark deviates to a still 
greater degree from all true Cinchona barks by its great hard- 
ness. It is. also impossible to confuse it with the Cinchona nova 
surmamensis, for the reason that the Cinchona cuprea yields the 
redtar of Grahe’s test (p. 68). 

Specimens of this Cinchona cuprea were furnished, in 1879, toa 
German house (Lengerke & Co.) in Bucaramanga, in the Colum- 
ba state of Santander, and were sent by them to New York and 
onclon f° r the purpose of examination. The favorable result of 
the analyses then led to the collection of this bark on a larcr e scale 
in tie forests of the mountains which, above Bucaramanga, ascencl 
from the main valley of the Magdalena river to the chain of La 

the^Suarez rm ^ Water ' shed between ^is stream and its tributary, 

The tree which furnishes the Cinchona cuprea begins to make 

1 Pharm. Journ. XI (September, 1880) 259. 

2 Pharm. Journ X (1880), 954. 



its appearance at elevations of 1 600 feet, and the best bark is only 
stripped at elevations of from 2200 and 3200, or even as much as 
4200 feet, as was reported to me in November, 1881 and in Feb- 
ruary, 1882 by Dr. Chas. A. Robbins of New York, from personal 
observations. Only a small portion of the root-bark is collected 
with the other ; and in the wide surroundings of Bucaramanga the 
trees of this variety of Cinchona are now quite completely felled. 
A to some extent similar bark from other districts, e. g ., from Toli- 
ma, in about 5 0 N. lat., in the upper Magdalena valley, has been 
proved to contain but little alkaloid. 20,000 colli (serons) of the 
same, which were thrown upon the market in 1882, afforded either 
extremely little, orat the mostfrom 0.8 to 1.5 percent. ofquinine. The 
derivation of this Tolima bark has not been determined. From an 
anatomical point of view, I find it to agree with common Cuprea 
bark; it yielded to Dr. Kerner (1882) 1.778 percent. of crystallized 
sulphate of quinine. 

Of late years, and especially until August 1881, the copper- 
colored Cinchona has been brought to Europe in ever increasing 
amounts. Among the 100,000 colli (serons), of South American 
product, which were imported into London in 1881, there were over 
60,000 colli of “Cuprea,” of which, moreover, more than 5500 colli 
found their way to France. Cinchona cuprea, according to its 
structure (Plate \ III) , belongs to the previously considered false 
Cinchona barks, but, in consequence of the alkaloids which it 
contains, forms a very remarkable exception. The cork is formed 
of thick-walled cells (Plate VIII, e. f.), which are distinguished in 
the most striking manner from the much wider, and always delicate- 
walled, tabular cells of the cork of true Cinchonas (Plate VIII, A. 
C. e.) This fact is the more remarkable, since the bark of Remijia 
Hilarii, for example, appears to possess delicate-walled cork cells. 1 
Furthermore, the largest part of the tissue of Cinchona cuprea is 
seen to have become converted into sclerenchyma. In the outer 
bark (o) al ready, there are numerous groups of unelongated 
sclerotic cells (k) interspersed ; and on the boundary of the bast 
there are found isolated lacticiferous ducts (p), which, indeed, are 
wanting in very many pieces. The bast consists to a predominating 
extent of thickened, simple, somewhat short, unpointed fibres (s), 
which, therefore, when observed longitudinally (Plate VII, sr). 
deviate entirely from the bast fibres of true Cinchona barks. Only 
the staff cells, mentioned on p. 37, are similar to the fibres of Cin- 
chona cuprea. The bast of the latter contains, moreover, shortened 
sclerenchyma cells, as well as the outer bark. It is only in the 

1 Möller, Baumrmden p. 137 (Remijia Vellozii). 



youngest bast layers that sieve-tubes and parenchyma predominate ; 
and here particularly, although also in the outer bast, crystal-cells 
(x) are present, in which finely crystallized oxalate is deposited. 
The bast shows accordingly (Plate VIII) a distinct Separation into 
an outer zone, rieh in sclerenchyma, and an inner parenchymatic 
zone, containing fewer fibres, and particularly a less number of 
stone cells. The medullary rays of the bast are but narrow. 
The by far predominating sclerenchyma is the cause of the 
remarkable hardness of this bark, which, therefore, in London, 
was also named “hard bark.” It is, furthermore, characterizecl 
by the red coloring matter, which p»netrates the entire tissue so 
abundantly that it is almost impossible to decolorize it, e. g., by 
means of ammoniacal alcohol. 

The bark of the Cascarilla magnifolia, mentioned on pages io and 
48, agrees very nearly, in regarcl to its structure, 1 with the Cinchona 
cuprea. The cork cells of the former, however, are thin-walled, 
as in the Cinchonas, and its bast-fibres do not form such long, 
straight rows as in Cinchona cuprea, where they may be followed 
uninterruptedly from the youngest portion of the bast even into 
the outer bark. 

Hesse has shown 2 that in this Cinchona cuprea, which I saw for 
the first time in his collection, the same alkaloids are present as in 
the Cinchona barks. Since the Cinchona cuprea, independent of 
the other bases, affords uniformly from 1 to 2 per cent. of quinine, 
it is the more willingly worked by the manufacturers, as in conse- 
quence of the absence of cinchonidine 3 the preparation of pure 
sulphate of quinine from this bark is rendered much easier. 

The tannic acicl of the Cinchona cuprea, according to Hesse, is 
not the same which exists in the Cinchona barks, although the 
former likewise produces a dark green precipitate with ferric salts. 
Hlasiwetz, in 1867, ascertained that the tannic acid of coffee, by 
boiling with caustic alkali, may be split into sugar and caffeeic acid , 
C 9 H 8 0 4 , one of the hydro-cinnamic acids C 6 H,(^£ h _ co _ oh . K^' r - 

nei, in 1882, treated an alcoholic extract of Cuprea bark in the 
same manner, supersaturated the liquid with sulphuric acid, and 
agitated it with ether, which then furnished crystals of caffeeic acid 
The yielcl amounted to about y 2 per cent. of the bark employed! 

Bei ' g ’r S € i inarinden der pharmakognostichen Sammlung zu 
heran \ 865 .Plate X, Fig. 27. In the mnermost portion of the bast there are manv 
more fibres than here— compare our Plate VIII. y 

2 Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft , 1871, p. 818. 

3 According to Hesse, Berichte der Deutsch Chem Dec u 

wkM n'^c u'p bark h ° (F\ *B .^ p ! )* a ™ * U 6 and conc l uinamine have also never been met 



I he extracts of other Cinchona barks afforded by the same treat- 
ment no caffeeic acid. This investigation was instituted in conse- 
quence of crystals of caffe^ate of quinine having been found in die 
mother liquids obtained from Cinchona cuprea in die quinine manu- 
factory at Milan. 

All die Cinchona cuprea whicli I have obtained from London and 
New York, as also from Jobst’s manufactory, near Stuttgart, and, 
furthermore, e. g., that whicli I have inspected in large amounts in 
Zimmers manufactory at Frankfort, always represented one and 
the same product. Triana States that the districts southeast of 
Bogota, mentioned on page 20, also furnish the same bark; the 
latter he derives with precision from the there described Remijia pe- 
dunculata , to whicli thus the bark from Bucaramanga may prob- 
ably also belong. 1 

Among the Cinchona cuprea whicli reached France, small 
amounts of a bark have, however, been found by Von Arnaud, 2 
which, accorcling to Planchon, is essentially distinct from my Cin- 
chona cuprea. As Arnaud has discovered in that a new alkaloid, 
cinchonamine , 3 the respective variety may here be designated as 
Cinchonamine bark. It is, as stated by Planchon, 4 mostly deprived of 
the warty cork, and displays upon a transverse section about 10 rows 
of small, isodiametrical or polygonal cells, which, toward the interior, 
gradually become extencled in a tangential direction, and thereby 
impart to the transverse section a peculiar delineation. In the 
bast there are very numerous, densely crowded fibres with consider- 
able cavities, in radial rows, which are separated by medullary rays 
of from 4 to 5 cells in width. On a longitudinal section the fibres 
appear slightly elongated, and short sclerenchyma cells and lacti- 
ciferous ducts are wanting, while my Cinchona cuprea is particularly 
characterized by the abundant development of groups ol scleren- 
chyma. 5 The bast of Cinchona cuprea displays, as may be observed 
in Plate VIII, two distinct strata; according to Planchon’s intima- 
tion this is not the case in the bast of the Cinchonamine bark, 
although, indeed, here also the fibres in the outermost bast layers 
occur somewhat more numerously than in the inner. 

1 Journ. de Pharm., V (1882), p. 567; also Pharm. Journ. XII (1882), p. 861. 

2 Repertoire de Pharm. 1881, p. 507. 

3 The name cinchonamine was already bestowed by A. C. Oudemans, in 1 879» 
another alkaloid, which has not been met with again since it was discovered. 

4 Journ. de Pharm. V (1882), p. 354, “ Quinquina ä cinchonamine;” and \ I, p. 89, 
"Note sur les Lcorces de Remijia.” 

5 I unfortunately did not succeed in obtaining the Cinchonamine bark. It is presum- 
ably the same bark which, according to the Pharm. Journ. XI, p. 895, also appeared 
once in 1881, in London. 



Of the tree, which in the valley of the Magdalena (probably 
more correctly in the central district, between the Cauca and 
Magdalena?) furnishes the Cinchonamine bark, Triana 1 procured 
the required organs, in Order to be able to determine that it is the 
Remijia Purdieana , mentioned on p. 20. By a comparison of this 
material with the Cuprea barks occurring in commerce, Plan- 
chon has definitely established the derivation here given of my 
Cinchona cuprea, as well as that of the Cinchonamine bark. 



A conception of the large dimensions of the commerce in Cin- 
chona barks is given by the following figures: 2 — 

According to an estimate in the London Pharmaceutical Jour- 
nal of September 18, 1880, there are annually more than 6 million 
kilograrns 3 of Cinchona bark (considered in the dry state) peeled 
and brought into commerce. The following Statements indicate that 
this figure is well founded. If one may accept that the average 
value of one kilogram of Cinchona bark is from 4 to 5 marks , 4 the 
annual cinchona harvest would be worth, at the present time, nearly 
30 million marks (nearly p / 2 million dollars). 

Among all the drugs, only Opium attains to still larger sums; by 
far the smallest part of which, however, serves for medicinal pur- 
poses. Indeed, in the case of the Cinchona barks also, only a 
small and not easily estimated portion finds direct application in 

In the year 1880 there were exported from the northern part of 
South America, in Ciudad Bolivar, 29,650 kilograrns (in 1881 only 
6,650), from Puerto Cabello 24,107 kilograrns, and in Barranquilla 
(Sabanilla) 3,797,861 kilograrns of Cinchona; in 1881, the latter 
figure, consisting chiefly of Cinchona cuprea, was increased to 
6,838,920 kilograrns. 

Ecuador, presumably inclusive of the neighboring districts of 
Peru, furnished in 1880, via Guayaquil, 1,516,102 kilograrns of 
bark; in 1881 only about half so much. 

1 Pharm. Journ. XII, p. 861 ; Journ. de Pharm. V, p. 567. 

* For a P art °( these figures I am indebted to the obliging Communications of Dr G 
Cn e J n M frMT manufactory), of Frankfort, Mr. David Howard, ofStratford, 
pared 1"' F Dresden - whlle the remamder were obtained from official reports com- 

3 1 kilogram = 2 lbs, y/. ozs, nearly, avoirdupois. 
1 mark = about 23 Cents, U. S. currency. 



In 1 877 there were exported from Bolivia 56,620 kilograms by 
water to Para, 254,009 kilograms to Arica, and 374,309 kilograms 
to Molendo (south of Islay and Arequipa). 

The export from Ceylon amounted, in 1870, to 86,000, in 1880, 
to 186,000, in 1881, to 600,000 kilograms, and for 1882 itisestimat- 
ed at about 1 million kilograms. 1 It may be presumed that in 1885 
the export will amount to at least 4 million kilograms. 

The plantations of the Dutch Government, in Java, had furnished, 
in 1879, but 35,000 kilograms, in 1880 more than 55,000 kilograms, 
in 1881 already 81,043 kilograms, and at the principal auction at 
Amsterdam, May 23, 1882, 81,000 kilograms were offered for sale. 
There are, moreover, also noteworthy plantations of private owners 
upon the island, which, in 1881, had already furnished 522 bales 
and 64 chests of Cinchona bark to the Amsterdam market. 

In May, 1880, the first supplies from Jamaica came to London, 
which, in March, 1882, had already attainecl to more than 15,000 

In 1878 the import of France amountecl to somewhat more than 

1.600.000 kilograms of Cinchona bark, at a value of 11,201,988 
francs, and in 1881 nearly as much. The United States received, 
between 1874 and 1877, an annual average of 3,853,662 pounds, 
and in 1881 nearly the same amount. 

London is the princial point for the commerce in Cinchona barks. 
The import of this place, which amounted to 1,140,000 kilograms 
in the year 1876, has since regularly increased, to a particular 
extent in the year 1881, and exceeded in the past year 6 million 
kilograms. If there be addecf thereto that which is imported into 
Paris, New York, Hamburg and Amsterdam, the total harvest of 
Cinchona bark for 1876 may be estimated at 3^ million, for 1881, 
however, at 9 million kilograms. Hamburg, with an annual im- 
portation of about 30,000 to 80,000 kilograms of Cinchona bark, 
cornes scarcely more into consideration than Amsterdam, where 
are brought the barks which are grown almost exclusively in 

Since 1876 the greatest increase is to be seen in the imports 
from India and Columbia (New Granada). Promthelatter country 

4.797.000 kilograms were received in London in 1881, which, 
indeed, includes the Cinchona cuprea, the occurrence of which, 
however, is probably but transitory. On April 1, 1881, theiewere 
stored in London 26,805 colli of Cinchona bark, thus at least 

1 The export from Ceylon has already attained to v more than \]i million kilograms ; 
thatof Java, in 1881, 165,000 kilograms. 



1,340,000 kilograms. 1 At the beginning of July, 1882, the supply 
there amounted to 3^ million, and in Paris to about ]/ 2 million 

If one attempt to estimate the amount of sulphate of quinine 2 
(including the other salts of quinine and the remaining Cinchona 
bases) which is annually manufactured in recentyears, there results, 
with some degree of probability, the figure of 120,000 kilograms, 
which presupposes nearly 86,400 kilograms of alkaloid. If it then 
be assumed that the barks contain, on an average, but two per 
cent. of alkaloids, the manufactories must annually work up about 
4 million kilograms of Cinchona bark; at the present day, 
however, it may be presumed to be considerable more. 

The commercial reports are accustomed to calculate according 
to colli (serons, bales), which contain from 50 to 55 kilograms of 

If one will assume that for each of the nearly 5000 pharmacies 3 
of Germany there is a daily consumption of 100 grams of Cin- 
chona bark, this figure, which is undoubtedly too highly estimated, 
would correspond to an annual requirement of 182,500 kilograms. 
In the year 1881, however, the import of Germany (after deduct- 
mg 119,200 kilograms, which again went out of the country) 
amounted to 2,048,600 kilograms; 1,876,100 kilograms of bark had 
thus probably become worked up for alkaloid in the 6 quinine 
manufactories of Germany, and may have furnished more than 
50,000 kilograms of sulphate of quinine. 

In December, 1881, a ring of speculators placed themselves in possession of the 
largest part of Cinchona bark stored there, which was estimated at about 40,000 colli or 
over 2 million kilograms, and among which Cinchona cuprea was present to the largest 

The present price of sulphate of quinine is nearly 300 marks per kilogram One 
may thus be permitted to assume that the amount of cinchona alkaloids and their salts 
w Inch are annually manufactured represent in the world’s market a sum of from 20 to 
40 milhon marks (about 7^ to 10 million dollars). An indication of the great fluctu- 
at'.ons in this department may moreover be given by the following extremes in the selling 
price of sulphate of quinine from Zimmer’s manufactory at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 
the mterval from 1875 to 1881. A kilogram of this salt was quoted: 

at ma " kS m JT Uary ’ l8 o 76 o : at 545 marks in May, 1877; 

at2Öo February, 1878; at 440 “ May 1870’ 

at 2 4 ° November, 1881; at 430 “ August, 1880. 

3 According to the last Statements contained in the Imoerial Statktinai /» T u 

.88,). there existed in the year .875, in ,h= German Emp?re, 453. ‘pSades 






An odor is not entirely foreign to the Cinchona barks ; Weddell* 
found it, e. g., in the case of fresh Calisaya and amygdalifolia, to 
resemble that of elder bark, although more feeble. Also in some 
varieties of commercial barks, e. g., that of flava fibrosa (p. 44) and 
of Loxa (p. 47), a slight aroma cannot be entirely ignored. A 
slight aromatic odor is already perceived when the powdered fresh 
bark of the Indian C. succirubra is dried with milk of lime. Hesse 1 2 
also makes mention of an odorous principle in the Cinchona barks. 

The barks of some of the Rubiaceae which are most closely re- 
lated to the Cinchonas, have a decidedly agreeable odor, thus, e. g., 
that of Ferdinandusa chlorantha Pohl (Gomphosia chlorantha 

In regarcl to the taste, there occur, in part, significant distinctions. 
Younger barks have a predominating, but not disagreeably astrin- 
gent taste ( saveur styptique of Delondre and Bouchardat), more 
rarely, as, e. g., those of Huänuco and Loxa, at the same time 
astringent acidulous, although to a less extent. In trunk barks the 
astringen t tang becomes more and more lost, and the pure bitter 
taste appears strong and prominent. 

In the case of the Calisaya, the pure bitterness appears even with 
young barks, while the more diminutive C. scrobiculata always 
possesses the astringent tang, which occasionally predominates. 

In the C. pubescens, which is likewise poor in alkaloid, Weddell 3 
perceived, even in fresh trunk barks, only a somewhat bitter and 
at the same time nauseating taste. 

A disagreeable and at the same time a somewhat sharp tang is 
observed in the so-called Cinchona {China) Jaen vel Para fusca, 
in which the Cinchona bases are wanting; its botanical origin is 
not known. 4 

Among the universally distributed principles of the vegetable 
kingdom, which also occur in Cinchona barks, prominence has 
already been given to the directly observable starch and calcium 
oxalate. Since the latter is in crystalline granules and only 

1 Hist. Nat. des Quinquinas , pp. 33, 45. 

2 Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 18 77, p. 2162. 

3 Hist. nat. p. 56, Note 2. 

4 Compare Flückiger's Pharmakognosie, first edition, 1867, pp. 396, 403, where, 
however, the structure of true Cinchona barks has erroneously been ascribed to this 



deposited in isolated cells, it comes but little into consideration. 
The total ash of bark dried at ioo° C. (21 2° F.) attains, according 
to Reichardt, 1 to a maximum of about 3 per cent. (in Cinchona 
rubra); the amount oflime to about 1 per cent. Howard 2 obtained 
from the inner portion of the bast of C. succirubra 0.9 1 per cent. 
of calcium carbonate, corresponding to 0.5 per cent. of lime. On 
the other hand Reichel estimated the amount of oxalic acid (in 
Huänuco bark, p. 46) to be in maximum 0.29 per cent., and 
Reichardt (in Cinchona rubra) as 0.33 per cent., wherefrom may be 
deduced that the amount of never-failing oxalate cannot readily 
exceed 1 per cent., in that, presumably, a portion of the calcium is 
contained in the form of other compounds. 

The ash remaining by the combustion of the Cinchona barks, 
fluctuating from ^ to 3 per cent., consists for the most part of the 
carbonates of calcium and potassium, which, together, e. g., in the 
flava fibrosa, according to Reichardt, represent -f of the entire 
amount of ash. Very much smaller is the quantity of magnesium 
carbonate, which, e. g., in flat Calisaya, amounts to but of the ash. 
Cinchona cuprea afforded me 1.65 per cent. of ash. Conclusions as 
to the distribution of the constituents of the ash in the different 
forms of tissue of the bark appear premature. I found carefully 
isolated bast fibres to be poor therein. 

The presence of ammonium salt may readily be demonstrated in 
the extracts of Cinchona barks, although its amount, on an averao-e, 
is probably but very small. Carles, in 1873, obtained only fractions 
01 a permille. ofammonia. 

Substances which may be designated as resin are also contained 
in the barks in but very insignificant amounts. Delondre and Henry 
found such in the red juice exuding from the trunks of Cinchonas 
as the result of incisions. 

If Cinchona barks be extracted with boiling alcohol, a principle 
is separated in the colcl which has been regarded as wax, and which 
occasionally colored with Chlorophyll, may also be obtained when 

“ f C are anaIyzed sim P>y f or the purpose of estimating 
the alkaloids. Kerner (1859, 1862) has designated this principle a? 
anchocerotin d When prepared from flat Calisaya it lorms, after 
purification, handsome, pnrely white, neutral, crystalline laminte 

which first meltatabout 150° C. (302° F.) ’ 

1 Title under section XVIII. 

Nueva Quinologia, Microsc. obscrvat.,io\. 6. 

juCic™' ^ h ä P S 



The presence of gum, as also of sugar, has not been more 
accurately proved in the Cinchona barks. 

The phlobaphen which, in 1844, was precipitated by Stähelin and 
Hofstetter from an alcoholic tincture of the yellow Cinchona by 
means ofsulphuric acid, as also the lignoin, prepared in 1856 by 
Reichel, are quite as insufficiently investigated as the corresponding 
s bstances occurrm,^ in oak bark. 1 Reichel s lignoin may be 
obtained when Cinchona, which has been exhausted by ether, 
alcohol and water, is extracted with caustic lye, and is then pre- 
cipitated, on the addition of an acid, as a dark brown substance, 
which, in its dry state, may amount to from 2 to 19 per cent. of the 

The Cinchona barks contain tannin, which affords with ferric 
salts a bright green, or, when other coloring principles of the 
barks co-operate, a darker brownish-green precipitate. This cincho- 
tcinnic acid also produces a precipitate in a solution of gelatin. 
Reichardt found in Cinchona (China) flava fibrosa 1 per cent., in 
flat Calisaya 3^, and in quill Calisaya, 2 per cent. of tannic acid; 
Reichel, in flava fibrosa (the Tunita bark mentioned on page 18), 
3.8 per cent. When separated from the lead salt, the cincho-tannic 
acid represents, accordingto Schwarz (1851), a bright yellowish.very 
hygroscopic mass, of an acidulous, and at the same time astringent, 
but not bitter, taste. Upon heating the cincho-tannic acid at but 
ioo° C. (2 12° F.), or by the evaporation of its aqueous solution, 
especially after the addition of acids or alkalies, red products are 
formed — in the latter case with absorption of oxygen. By precipi- 
tating the red-brown ammoniacal extract of Cinchona with an acid, 
the cinchona-red is obtained, which, when dried, is a dark red or 
brownish-red, odorless and tasteless mass, insoluble in ether, water, 
and dilute acids, but soluble in alcohol. The ammoniacal solution 
of cinchona-red affords, with alum, a red lake. With a fraudulent 
purpose, the attempt has already been made to impart to yellow 
Cinchona barks the appearance of the more expensive red varie- 
ties by moistening them with ammonia. The aqueous extract of a 
bark which has been treated in this way is remarkably colored, and 
affords, with Nessler’s reagent, 2 a reddish-brown, not a white pre- 
cipitate; chloride of platinum also produces an abundant precipi- 
tate, while the Cinchona barks, as previously intimated, p. 59, can 
furnish but very little ammonio-platinic chloride. 3 

1 Flückiger, Pharmakognosie , 1882, p. 475. 

2 Flückiger, Pharm. Chemie. ,1878, p. 38; Kübel and Tiemann, Anleitung zur Unter- 
suchung von IVasser, 1874, p. 142; Hoffman and Power’s Examination of Medicinal 
Chemicals, p. 40. 

3 Thomas et Guignard, Repertoire de Pharmacie, 1882, p 337. 



The amount of water contained in air-dried Cinchona barks 
amounts usually to from 9 to 1 1 per cent. (Compare also page 

34 -) 

The oldest observation which relates to the peculiar constituents 
öf Cinchona barks, or at least to those which are characteristic of 
them, reverts to the year 1745, when Claude Toussaint Marot de 
Lagaraye, of Paris, perceived the deposit of a salt from an extract 
of Cinchona. 1 S. F. Hermbstädt, of Berlin, in 1785, recognized 
therein the calcium compound of an acid, the peculiarity of which 
was established in 1790 by Friedr. Christian Hofmann, an apothe- 
cary of Leer, in Hanover, who named it Chinasäure (kinic acid). 

Vauquelin, in 1806, determined more precisely the properties, 
and Liebig the composition, of kinic acid. It occurs in all true 
Cinchona barks, in amounts of as much as 9 per cent., and upon it 
depends the acid reaction of their aqueous extracts; it is, however, 
without any considerable physiological action. Hlasiwetz, in 1851, 
found kinic acid also in the Cinchona nova, mentioned on page 49. 
Since, according to Hesse, it is absent in the Cinchona cuprea, it 
would be desirable to know its distribution in the group of the 
Cinchoneae, the more so as it belongs to those plant acids which 
are of quite common occurrence. Kinic acid forms large, hard, 
monoclinic crystals, which are soluble in somewhat more than twice 
their weight of water. The solution is odorless, of a purely acid 
taste, not bitter, and deviates the plane of polarization to the left 
According to its Constitution, C 6 H 7 (OH) 4 CO-OH, and that of its 
derivatives, the acid belongs to the dass of aromatic compounds ; 
by the action of hydriodic acid it may be reduced to benzoic acid 
and protocatechuic acid, and by energetic Oxidation may be con- 
verted into quinone (or kinone). In closest relation to kinic acid 
Stands the so-called acorn-sugar, or quercite, C 6 H 7 (OH).. 

In the barks of the Cinchonas and the most closely related Ru- 
biaceae, there is found an uncrystallizable bitter principle, chinovin 2 

1 Chymie hydraulique, pour extraire les sels essentiels des vee6taux animaux et mine 
raux avec l’eau pure, par M. L. C. D. L. G. (Monsieur le coSrde la Garavef Paris' 
1749 - lI 4 - The Count occupied himself with chemistry for Philanthropie purposes. 

cle^C^c^J^L r „T ar J S of Liebermann and Giesel, Berichte der Deutsch, 
m. UeseUsc/iaß, 1883, pp. 926-941, the chinovin obtained from cinchom ninrn ;= 

«"* that obtained from the true cinchonas, but o!T isZer°rtherewith 
the formet theydesignateas ß chinovin, and the latter as a chinovm Both substances’ 

io 2i±SS 

mm^freely S s^ alcmhol^lBoth^varieTies ^f^hmovtn^have the Tarne 

to^e^ormuta™ ^eg^ded ^ rS Cg^H r 4 r ^O^° n< ^l 



(quinovin or kinovin). It was discovered in 1821 by Pelletier and 
Caventou, in Cinchona nova surinamensis, and named by them 
“acide quinovique”; it was afterward designated by others as chino- 
va-bitter or ein c hona- bitter, and in 1859 was recognized by Hlasi- 
wetz as a glucoside. Chinovin is best extracted from fresh 
Indian barks by means of a dilute alkali, and is precipitated there- 
from, according to De Vrij, by hydrochloric acid. In order to 
purify it, the chinovin is dissolved in milk of lime and again pre- 
cipitated. After having been subjected to this treatment several 
times, it is finally dissolved in Chloroform. Chinovin is scarcely 
soluble in water, but is soluble in acetone, ether and alcohol ; 
although neutral, it forms compounds with the alkalies, which are 
mostly soluble in water, and possess a very bitter taste. It is 
probable that a portion of the alkaloids in Cinchona barks is in 
combination with chinovin. According to Hlasiwetz, chinovin, 
C 30 H 48 0 8 , in alcoholic solution, is split, by the action of hydrochloric 
acid, into chinovic (quinovic or kinovic) acid C 24 H 38 0 4 , and asmeary 
variety of sugar (afterward recognized as mannitan '), 1 C 6 H l2 0 5 , 
whereby a molecule of water is absorbed. 

c 3D h 48 o 8 + h 2 o = c 24 h 38 o 4 + C 6 H„O s 

Chinovin Chinovic Acid. Mannitan. 

If an alcoholic solution of chinovin, diluted with a little water, is 
brought in contact with sodium amalgam, there is obtained, upon 
concentration, chinovate of sodium, as Rochleder (1867) has 

Chinovin participates in the medicinal activity of Cinchona 
barks. 2 The plane of polarization is deviated by its Solutions, as 
well as by those of chinovic acid, to the right. The latter forms 
rhombic laminae, and is of a feebly acid nature; it dissolves only 
in boiling alcohol somewhat abundantly, but neither in Chloroform 
nor in water. Chinovin, associated with chinovic acid, is not con- 
fined in the Cinchonas to the bark, but is distributed through all 
their parts. De Vrij, in 1860, found in dried leaves of Cinchonas 
cultivated in India as much as 2 per cent.; in the trunk bark as 
much as 1.4 per cent., and in the root bark 1 per cent. of chinovin; 

decomposition of chinovin is thus considered to take place according to the following 
equation C 38 H B2 0 11 - C 32 H 48 0 6 + C 6 H 12 0 4 + H 2 0 . 

v , — ' v , — ' ' , — ' 

Chinovin Chinovic acid Chinovin sugar. 

1 Liebermann and Giesel, loc. dt., p. 935, place the identity of this sugar with mannitan 
in question, but find the sugar obtained by the decomposition of both vaneties of chino- 
vin to be identical. (F. B. P.) 

2 Kerner, in the Göschen Deutsche Klinik , 1868, No. 9. 



the maximum, however, of 2^ per cent. in the wood of the root. 
Reichardt has obtained from Huänuco bark 1 ^ per cent., Reichel 
quite as much from Cinchona flava fibrosa (p. 44), and Howard 1 
4.28 per cent. 

Whether Cinchona barks exist in which this bitter principle is 
wanting, still requires proof. 

For the detection of the active principles of the Cinchona barks, 
experiments were already instituted in the preceding Century, 
although Gomes was the first who, in 1810, and more completely 
in October, 1811, succeeded to any extent in the preparation of 
the alkaloids from the Cinchona barks. 2 He dissolved an alcoholic 
extract of Cinchona in water, and precipitated by potassa a body 
which he re-crystallized from alcohol, and named cinchonine. That 
this preparation was of a basic natu re, was first observed by Houtou- 
Labillardiere in the laboratory of Thenard, at Paris, and com- 
municated to Pelletier and Caventou. 3 To these chemists, who 
were guided by Sertürner’s brilliant discovery of morphine, 4 we are 
indebted for a more precise acquaintance with Gomes’ cinchonine, 
and the proof (1820) that two basic principles, quinine and cincho- 
nine, are contained therein, to which the therapeutic effects of 
Cinchona belong. It is the former upon which almost exclusively 
the value of Cinchona bark depends. 

The following bases occur in noteworthy amounts in Cinchona 
barks : — 

Quinine, ....... 

Quinidine, 5 discovered by Henry and Delondre, in 1833, 
Cinchonine, ..... 

Cinchonidine, discovered by Winckler, in 1847, . 

C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 

of the snme 
com position. 

c 19 h 22 n 2 o 

of the same 

1 Examination of Pavon’s Collection of Peruvian Barks contained in the British Mu- 
seum, London, 1853, 8vo, pp. 47 (From the Pharm. Joum ., June, 1852). 

2 Ensaio sobre 0 chinchonino, Lisboa, 1810. A translation in the Medical and 
Surgical Journal Edinburgh, 18,1, p. 420. More extended in Memor. daacad real 
das Suencias de Lisboa III (1812), pp. 202 to 217: Ensaio sobre o cinchonino e sobre 
sua mfluenaa na virtude da quina e d’outras cascas. Antonio Bernardino Gomez was 

P h y siclan 3 'T h0 J s P ent ^e last years of the eighteenth Century in Brazü 
then lived in Lisbon, and died there in 1823 In 1801 there l- y „ \ 

^he^ culti vation 'of ^dnnamon Äf [f 

Ät b " e“'°S™“ di 7r died ' in 

of francT“ 

° f ° f Ä B P erz P eli„ s . 

4 Fluckiger, Pharmakognosie , second edition, i88x p 176 

KSÄ« K ,°86=’ '¥'• L"i h P‘- Hlasi " Mz ' 

p. 192. Archiv, der Pharm., 216 (i8&>) p 2 59 etc gS Annalen > r 9 3 (1878), 



The Cinchona barks contain, furthermore, in smaller amounts: 

Homocinchonidine, discovered by Hesse, in 1877 . . . . C 

Cinchonamine, obtained in 1881 by Arnaud, from Remijia Purdieana (p. 54)^ 
Homoquinine, found in 1882 by D. Howard and other English investigators, 

in Cinchona cuprea C 

Quinamine, discovered by Hesse, in 1872 Q 

Conquinamine, “ “ *' 1877 

Cinchamidine, “ " “ 1881 C 

,H 22 N 2 0 

,h 24 n 2 o 

a h 2 2 2 ^ 1 

n 2 o 

. h 24 

of the Name 
coin Position. 

20 ^ 26 ^ 2 ^ 

Ouinine and cinchonine stand at the head of two groups of 
alkaloids, which, indeed, individually, show quite broad distinctions, 
but present, however, with regard to their physiological action , 1 
some agreement. From these distinctive cinchona alkaloids the 
following bases are very considerably separated in every respect : 

Aricine, discovered by Pelletier and Coriol, in 1829, 2 and analyzed by 

Hesse, in 1876 

Cusconine, discovered by Hesse, 3 in 1877 

Cusconidine, “ “ “ “ 1877 

Cuscamine, “ “ “ “ 1880 

Cuscamidine, “ “ “ “ 1880 

Paytine 4 , “ “ “ “ 1870 

Paricine, in the bark from Para, mentioned on pages 58 and 68, discovered 
by Winckler, in 1845 

c 23 h 26 n 2 0 

of the Harne 

I not yet 

c 21 h 24 n 2 0 

nnt yet 


With the exception of paricine, cusconidine, and cuscamidine, 
the above named alkaloids are crystallizable. Besides the former, 
there occur however, other amorphous bases s in Cinchona barks, 
the knowledge of which is still but slightly satisfactory. They are 
perhaps first formed, in part, from the crystallizable alkaloids, in 
the process of manufacture. The chinoidm of the manu facto ries 
consists, for the most part, of amorphous bases. 

Hesse 6 isolated from the mother liquids of Cinchona barks, 
obtained from the manufactories, the slightly odorous cincholine , a 
base volatilizable with aqueous vapor, but which, however, may 

1 It is only in the case of quinine that this has been satisfactorily determined from a 
medical standpoint. 

2 In a bark of unknown botanical origin, which was exported a few times from Arica 
(see p. 32), and which may possibly belong to a Cinchona. 

3 From barks which have not been botanically determined ; the name relates to 
Cusco, in Southern Peru. 

Hesse, Berichte der Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1883, pp. 58-63, announces the prcsence of 
two new alkaloids in a variety of "cuprea” bark, viz: concusconine and concusconidine, 
both having the composition C 23 H 26 N 2 0 4 ; and the list appears notyetcompleted. (F. 
B. P.) 

4 In a so-called white Cinchona bark, which was once exported from Payta, the most 
northerly port of Peru, but is not to be met with in commerce. Compare, regarding the 
same, Fliickiger, Jahresbericht der Pharm., 1872, p. 132; also section 18, No. 35, of this 

5 Every Cinchona bark contains amorphous alkaloids. Bernelot Moens, in 1881, 
States that their quantity varied from 0.13 to 1.45 per cent., as ascertained from 85 
analyses performed by him. 

c Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 1882, p. 858. 



possibly only originate from the hyclrocarbons employed in the 
process of manufacture. (See section 15.) 

From die first named alkaloids, on page 63, there are formed, by 
the action of potassium permanganate: 1 chichotine , hydroquinidine , 
(hydroconchinine), hydro eine honine and hydrocinchonidine , which, 
according to Forst and Böhringer (1882), are said to originally 
exist in Cinchona barks. 

Only the two first mentioned pair of alkaloids (p. 63) are em- 
ployed medicinally; they have a very bitter taste. 

Quinine may be obtained in a crystalline form with 3 H 2 0 ; it is 
soluble in about 20 parts of ether, more abundantly in alcohol and 
Chloroform. These Solutions deviate the plane of polarization to 
the left. Quinine is soluble at 15 0 C (59 0 F.), in 1600 parts of 
water. This solution, as also the aqueous Solutions of quinine 
salts, when treated with chlorine-water or bromine vapor and am- 
monia, in the manner described in my Pharmaceutische Chemie , 2 
1878, p. 410, affords a green precipitate of so-called thalleioquin , or 
a beautifully green, clear solution. Quinine salts of the oxygen 
acids show, under the circumstances described in the previously 
mentioned work, page 409, a blue fluorescence. Quinine itself is 
but little used ; in medicine the sulphate (C 20 H 24 N 2 0 2 ) . H 2 S 0 4 -f 7 
H 2 0 3 is particularly employed, as also the hydrochlorate of qui- 

Quinidine (conquinine or conchinin) readily yields crystals havinw 
the composition (C 20 H 24 N 2 0 2 ) 2 + 5 H 2 0 , but which readily effloresce. 
It is less abundantly soluble in ether than quinine, and its Solutions 
deviate the plane of polarization to the right. In regard to fluor- 
escence and the thalleioquin reaction, quinidine shows the same 
behavior as quinine. 

Cinchonine is not capable of combining with water of crystalli- 
zation ; it dissolves first in 400 parts of ether, and, even by alcohol, 
is not abundantly taken up. 

. Cinchonidine crystallizes likewise only in an anhydrous condition 
is more abundantly soluble than cinchonine, and its optical behavior 
is the reverse of the latter. 

. Some noteworthy properties of this group of cinchona alkaloids, 
in a restricted sense, to which may still be added homoquinine and 

ierPkann - ,86 * P- 3131 also Strecker’s Jahre, 
2 See also Pharmacographia , second edition (1879) P 360 

^ “ 7 or 8 — 1 - ° f — «f 



the, indeed, very different quinamine, may be summarized as 
follows : — 

a. Hydrated crystals are formed by 

Not containing water of crystallization 

b. Abundantly soluble in ether 

Slightly “ “ “ . 

Very sparingly “ “ “ . 

c. Levogyrate Solutions afforded by 

Dextrogyrate “ “ “ , 

d. Thalleioquin is afforded by , 

“ is not " “ . 

e. Fluorescence is displayed in the acid 

Solutions of salts of . 

No fluorescence is displayed by 

Quinine, Quinidine. 

| Cinchonine, Cinchonidine. 

( Quinamine, Homoquinine. 

| Quinine, Quinidine. 
j Quinamine. 

Cinchonidine, Cinchonamine. 

Quinine, Cinchonidine. 

Quinidine, Cinchonine, 


Quinine, Quinidine, 


Cinchonine, Cinchonidine, 

Quinine, Quinidine, Homoquinine. 
Cinchonine, Cinchonidine, Quinamine. 

The amount of alkaloids 1 which the Cinchona barks contain is 
subject to considerable Variation. Karsten pursued this investi- 
gation, e. g., in the Cinchona corymbosa discovered by him, the 
trunks of which, at elevations of 3500 meters (11,375 feet), on 
the South-Colombian volcanoes, Cumbal and Chiles, furnished no 
quinine. Barks grown at other parts of this district afforded ^ per 
cent. of quinine, and those from the central elevated regions, 
which this handsome species 2 inhabits, 1^ to 3^ per cent. of sul- 
phate of quinine. Cinchona lancifolia, taken in the neighborhood 
of Bogota from one and the same mountain ridge, contained in 
the bark of the branches no quinine, or only insignificant traces of 
the same, while trunk bark from another place gave 2, and even 
4-p£, per cent. of sulphate of quinine. 

Variations not less in extent have been proved by De Vrij 3 to 
occur with Cinchonas grown in Java. Calisaya trunk barks, 7 
years old, gave 0.64 per cent., and those of years, from another 
plantation, 5 per cent. of total alkaloids. In 1873, he found in the 
bark of Cinchona officinalis, from Ootacamund, i 1 /^ to 9.1 per cent. 
of quinine. 

In the bark of Cinchona pubescens Vahl, which, indeed, is un- 
salable, Hesse, in 1871, found no alkaloid at all. 

1 The analytical Statements frequently refer to sulphate, and not to the amount of the 
bases themselves, directly separated from the bark. ioo parts of sulphate of quinine = 
64 of quinine; ioo of quinine — 135 of sulphate. The Dutch analyses state the per- 
centage of alkaloid of barks dried at ioo 0 C. (2i2°F.); these values, therefore, on ac- 
count of the average amount of water, 13.5 per cent. (see p. 34), must be multiplied by 
0.865, in order to correspond to an air-dried product. 

2 Figure : plate X of the Flora mentioned in section 18, No. 12; also copied there- 
from (uncolored) in Markham’s publication (section 18, No. 21 of this work). 

3 Pharm. Jonm., VI (1864), p. 16. 



From the few, but striking, analytical results which are here 
summarized, it is evident that external characteristics, including 
histological relations, scarcely afford a criterion for the chemical 
valuation of Cinchona barks. If we must abandon the attempt of 
determining for one and the same Cinchona a constant average 
percentage, this applies in a very much higher degree to the com- 
mercial varieties. 

Between the complete absence of bases, and the maximum of 
more than 13 per cent. of quinine, 1 which has been observed up to 
the present time, numerous gradations occur regarding quality and 

The barks of the roots appear regularly to be richer in alkaloids 
than those of the trunks. De Vrij, in 1869, obtained from the 
root bark of C. succirubra, grown in Ootacamund, 12 per cent. of 

Of the bark of Calisaya Ledgeriana, grown in Java, Bernelot 
Moens, in 1879, examined 80 specimens. They afforded a mini- 
mum of 1.09 per cent., and a maximum of 12.50 per cent. of 
alkaloids, although only in 13 cases less than 5 per cent. The 
quinine varied between 0.8 and 11.6 per cent. The same bark 
furnished in following years, according to the estimations of the 
above-named chemist, in 100 parts of artificially (page 34) dried 
bark : — 

Total alkaloids, in minimum, 
" maximum, 
Quinine, in minimum, 

“ “ maximum, 

1880 1881 

4-3 2. 

9. 9. 

2.3 1.2 

8. 8.1 

In the Indian C. succirubra, whose total alkaloid readily amounts 
to from 6 to 1 1 per cent., as was, moreover, already known to be 
the case with the original Red Cinchona of South America, the 
amount of quinine is small. The Indian bark often affords 
but 1 per cent., more rarely about 4 per cent. of quinine, and very 
commonly trom 3 to 4 per cent. of cinchonidine. In the year 1881 
the amount of total alkaloid from the bark of C. succirubra har- 
vested in Java vaned between 3.2 and 9.8 per cent., that of quinine 

rom 0.4 to 2.5 per cent., and of cinchonidine between 1 3 and s 2 
per cent. 

The above analyses of Bernelot Moens refer to average speci- 
mens from separate packages, the weight of which was from 200 
kilograms, and even less, to some thousands of kilograms. 

I he wood of the roots and of the trunks of Cinchona, the latter 

M °“*- <*««<» - «»uch as ,3.6, per 



of which, according to Van Gorkom, is adapted for cabinet-makers’ 
work, contains, besides chinovin (see p. 6 1 ), occasionally about '/ 2 
per cent. of alkaloids, as stated by Bernelot Moens, in the annual 
report of the Javanese cultivation for 1880. 

The leaves of the Cinchonas have an acidulous, bitter taste, and, 
after drying, an odor resembling tea. It is placed beyond doubt 
that they contain an insignificant amount of alkaloids, the prepa- 
ration of which, in a pure state, howevery is attended with greater 
difficulty than from the bark. Broughton, in 1870, obtained from 
the leaves of the Indian C. succirubra, only fractions of a per mille 
of alkaloid. 1 According to the experience of English physicians 
in India, which, indeed, is, as yet, not very extended, the leaves of 
C. succirubra deserve consideration as a febrifuge. 2 Their taste is 
due chiefly to chinovin, of which, e. g ., in the last named species, 
they contain as much as 2 per cent., and in general appear to con- 
tain, on an average, more than the bark. The amount of chinovin 
Stands presumably in inverse proportion to the percentage of 

Still more bitter than the leaves are the flowers, the bitterness of 
which, however, is not taken up by the aqueous infusion. ßrough- 
ton, in 1869, found them to contain chinovin, but no alkaloid. 

The Cinchona fruits , which likewise have a bitter taste, contain 
either no bases, or but an extremely small amount. O. Henry, in 
1835, found none therein, as likewise DeVrij, in 1870; Broughton, 
in 1867, met with doubtful traces of alkaloids in fresh capsules. 

If quinine or cinchonine be heated with volatile organic or in- 
organic acids, or with such substances as are capable of yielding 
them, a beautiful red decomposition product is formed. Grahe, 
assistant at the laboratory of the University of Kasan, has shown 
(1858) that the same product may be very nicely obtained from 
Cinchona barks. No other bases show this behavior, and barks 
also which contain no cinchona bases do not afford this red product. 
A red tar, indeed, appears also upon heating cinchona red (in so far 
as the latter is not most carefully freed from the alkaloids?). 

Grahe s test, in combination with the simplest microscopical 
examination, therefore, affords an admirable means of furnishing 
the proof whether a bark provided with Cinchona alkaloids is at 
hand or not. By the entire absence, or extremely small percentage, 
of Cinchona bases, this reaction is not obtained, even when using 
a true Cinchona bark. Thus, g., with the Cinchona from Para, 
and the bark designated by Winckler 3 as Calebeja, which possess 

1 Blue Book , 1870, p. 238. 1 Blue Book, 1863, p. 264. 

3 Compare also Wiggers Pharmakognosie, 1857, p. 355: "clove-brown Calebeja." 



the structure of true Cinchona barks, but contain, however, no 
cinchona bases, but paricine. Cinchona nova surinamensis does 
not give the red tar, which, however, is afforded by Cinchona 

Hesse renders Grahe’s test more delicate by extracting with 
alcohol the bark to be tested, drying the tincture with an appropriate 
amount of powder of the same bark, and first heating the latter 



The estimation of the alkaloids may be quite satisfactorily ac- 
complished by the following method: — 

I. Twenty grams of a well selected, average specimen of the bark 
is very finely powdered, moistened with ammonia water, 1 and, after 
Standing for an hour, mixed with 80 grams of hot water; it is then 
allowed to cool, subsequently intimately mixed with milk of lime 
(prepared by triturating 5 grams of dry caustic lime with 50 grams 
of water,) and the mixtu re evaporated upon a water-bath until it 
is uniformly converted into small, somewhat moist, crumb-like 
particles. This is then transferred to a cylindrical glass tube (see 
figure), which at A is 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) wide, and 
from A to B 16 centimeters (6.4 inches) long. At B a 
small brass sieve is inserted, upon which a disc of filtering 
paper is secured by means of a bunch of loose cotton. 

The powder having been quite compactly adjusted upon 
the cotton, it is again covered at A, as in B, with a little 
cotton ; the latter having been previously employed for 
removing the last traces of the powdered bark from the 
capsule. At E , a tightly-fitting cork is inserted, which is 
penetrated by the tube A, and connected with an invert- 
ed, small, glass condenser. The lower end of the appa- 
ratus, C, is tightly connected, by means of a cork, with 
the flask A, containing about 100 cubic centimeters of 
ether. The flask is then heated by means of a constantly 
supplied water-bath; and in the same degree as the 
vapors of ether are expellecl through D , they become 
again Condensed in the condenser — the liquid dropping 
through the tube A upon the powder at A, penetratinw 
the entire column of powder A B, and flowing at C, sat> 
urated with alkaloid, into the flask K. To effect the com- 
plete exhaustion of the bark by the ether, the Operation 

This effects a remarkable svvelling and disintegration of the tissue. 



of displacement should be continued uninterruptedly for nearly 
a day, but when once in progress it requires but little atten- 
tion. In Order to determine whether the bark is completely 
exhausted, a few drops of the ether, falling at C, are collected in a 
test-tube, and mixed with about an equal volume of a solution of 
potassio-mercuric iodide (0.332 gram potassium iodide, and 0.454 
gram red mercuric iodide, in 100 cubic centimeters of water); no tur- 
bidity should occur if the process of extraction has been sufficiently 
long continued. When this is accomplished, 36 cubic centimeters of 
one-tenth normal hydrochloric acid (3.65 grams HCl in 1 liter) are 
added to the ether in the flask K, the ether distilled off, and sub- 
sequently so much hydrochloric acid added as may be required to 
impart to the liquid an acid reaction. After having cooled, the 
liquid is filtered from the separated mixture of wax, chinovin and 
Chlorophyll, 40 cubic centimeters of one-tenth normal sodium 
hydrate solution (4 grams NaOH in 1 liter), are added, and the 
whole allowed to repose until the precipitate has subsided, and the 
supernatant liquid has become perfectly clear. Sodium hydrate is 
then gradually added to the liquid as long as a precipitate con- 
tinues to be produced, for which purpose a solution of the spec. 
grav. 1.3, is the most serviceable. The precipitated alkaloids are 
afterwards collected on a filter, and gradually washed with a little 
cold water, until a few drops of the washings, when allowed to flow 
on the surface of a cold, saturated, neutral, aqueous solution of qui- 
nine sulphate, cease to produce a turbidity. The drained precipitate 
contained on the filter is then gently pressed between bibulous 
paper, and dried by exposure to the air. It may afterwards readily 
be removecl from the paper without loss, and, after thoroughly 
drying upon a watch-glass over sulphuric acid, 1 is finally dried at 
ioo° C (2 12° F.), and weighed. The weight of the precipitate, 
multiplied by 5, will give the total percentage of mixed alkaloids 
in the bark. 

If it is desired to accomplish the estimation of the alkaloids with 
more simple apparatus, the ether may be substituted to advantage, 
either wholly or in part, by higher boiling liquids; e. g., by Toluol 
(boiling point, in 0 C.), Xylol (1 3 7°), or Amylic Alcohol (129 0 ). 
A method of this description has been furnished by Squibb, 2 and is 
very worthy of recommendation. 

II. Squibb’s Method: — 

“To 1.25 grams (19.29 grains) of well-burnt lime, contained in 

1 By operating in this way, the agglutination of the precipitate is avoided, and the 
elimination of the water facilitated. 

2 Ephemeris of Materia Medica, Pharmacy, etc., Brooklyn, N. Y., 1882, pp. 78, 105. 



a io-centimeter (4-inch) capsule, 30 cubic centimeters (1 fluid- 
ounce) of hot water are added, and when the lime is slaked, the 
mixture is stirred, and 5 grams (77.16 grains) of the powdered 
cinchona 1 are added, the mixture very thoroughly stirred, and 
digested in a warm place for a few hours, or over night. The 
mixture is then dried, at a low temperatu re, on a water-bath, rubbed 
to powder in the capsule, and transferred to a flask of 100 cubic 
centimeters (3.3 fluidounces) capacity, and 25 cubic centimeters 
(0.8 fluidounce) of amylic alcohol added. The flask is afterward 
corked, and digested in a water-bath at a boiling temperature, 
with frequent, vigorous shaking, for four hours. It is then allowed 
to cool, and 60 cubic centimeters (2 fluidounces) of stronger ether, 
spec. grav. 0.728, added, and again shaken vigorously and fre- 
quently during an hour or more. The liquid is now filtered 
through a double Alter of 10 centimeters (4 inches) diameter into 
a flask of 150 cubic centimeters (5 fluidounces) capacity, and the 
residue transferred to the Alter. The flask is rinsed, and the 
rinsings brought on to the Alter with a mixture of 10 volumes of 
amylic alcohol and 40 volumes of stronger ether, and the residue on 
the Alter percolated with 15 cubic centimeters (0.5 fluidounce) of 
the same mixture, added drop by drop from a pipette to the edges 
of the Alter and surface of the residue. The residue is afterward 
returned to the flask from whence it came, 30 cubic centimeters 
(1 fluidounce) of the amylic alcohol and ether mixture added, 
shaken vigorously for 5 minutes or more, and the whole returned 
to the Alter, and the residue again percolated with 15 cubic centi- 
meters of the menstruum, applied drop by drop from a pipette, as 
before. The Alter and residue are now put aside, in Order that 
the latter may afterward be tested in regard to the degree of 

The ether is now boiled off from the Altrate in the flask by means 
of a water-bath, taking great care to avoid the ignition of the ether 
vapor, and also to avoid explosive boiling, by having a long wire 
in the flask. When boiled down as far as practicable in the flask, 
the remainder is transferred to a tared capsule of 10 centimeters 
(4 inches) diameter, and the evaporation continued on a water- 
bath until the contents are reduced to about 6 grams (92 grains). 
This is transferred to a flask of 100 cubic centimeters (3.3 fluid- 
ounces) capacity, rinsing the capsule with not more than 4 cubic 
centimeters (64 minims) of amylic alcohol, and adding the same 
to the contents of the flask. 6 cubic centimeters (96 mimins) of 
water and 4 cubic centimeters (64 minims) of normal solution of 

1 A previous moistening of the bark with ammonia is also recommended. 



oxalic acid are then added, and the mixture shaken vigorously and 
frequendy during half an hour. The mixture, while intimately 
well mixed, is poured on to a well-wetted double filter of 12 centi- 
meters (4.75 inches) diameter, and the aqueous solution filtered 
from the amylic alcohol into a tared capsule of 10 centimeters (4 
inches) diameter. The filter and contents are washed with 5 
cubic centimeters (80 minims) of water, applied drop by drop from 
a pipette to the edges of the filter and surface of the amylic alco- 
hol. The amylic alcohol is then poured back into the flask, over 
the edge of the filter and funnel, rinsing the last portion in with a 
few drops of water. 10 cubic centimeters (160 minims) of water 
and 1 cubic centimeter (16 minims) of normal solution of oxalic 
acid are now added, again shaken vigorously for a minute or two, 
and the whole returned to the wetted filter, and the aqueous portion 
filtered off into the capsule with the first portion. The amylic 
alcohol is again returned to the flask, and the washings repeated 
with the same quantities of water and normal oxalic acid solution. 
When this has drained through, the filter and contents are 
washed with 5 cubic centimeters (80 minims) of water, applied 
drop by drop by drop from a pipette. The total filtrate in the 
capsule is evaporated on a water-bath, at a low temperature, until it 
is reduced to about 15 grams (241 grains) and this transferred to 
a flask of 100 cubic centimeters (3.3 fluidounces) capacity, rinsing 
the capsule with 5 cubic centimeters (80 minims) of water, and 
adding this to the contents of the flask. 20 cubic centimeters (0.66 
fluidounce) of purified Chloroform are now first added, and then 
6.1 cubic centimeters (98 minims) of normal solution of sodium 
hydrate, and shaken vigorously for five minutes or more. While 
still intimately mixed by the shaking, the mixture is poured upon 
a filter of 12 centimeters (4.75 inches) diameter, well wetted with 
water. When the aqueous solution has passed through, leaving 
the Chloroform on the filter, the filter and Chloroform are washed 
with 5 cubic centimeters (80 minims) of water, applied, drop by 
drop. The Chloroform solution is then, by making a pin-hole in 
the point of the filter, transferred to another filter of 10 centimeters 
(4 inches) diameter, well wetted with Chloroform, and placed over 
a tared flask of 100 cubic centimeters (3.3 fluidounces) capacity. 
The watery filtrate is washed through into the chloroform-wet 
filter with 5 cubic centimeters (80 minims) of purified Chloroform, 
and when this has passed through into the flask, the chloroform- 
wet filter is also washed with 5 cubic centimeters (80 minims) of 
chloroform, applied drop by drop to the edges of the filter. When 
the whole chloroform solution of alkaloids is collected in a flask, 



the Chloroform is boilecl off to dryness in a water-bath, when the 
alkaloids will be left in warty groups of radiating crystals, adhering 
over the bottom and sides of the flask. .The flask is then placecl 
on its side in a drying-oven, and dried at ioo° C. (21 2° F.) to a 
constant weight. The weight of the contents multiplied by 20 
gives the percentage of the total alkaloids of the cinchona in an 
anhydrous condition, to within 0.1 to 0.2 per cent., if the process 
has been well managed.” 

If it is desired to avoid the use of ether, the alkaloids liberated 
by lime may be taken up by xylol, toluol, or amylic alcohol at the 
boiling temperature, and subsequently abstracted from these So- 
lutions by means of dilute acids. 

Estimation of Q umine. 

“Into the flask containing the total alkaloids, after these have 
been weighed, are placed 5 grams (78 grains) of glass, which has 
been ground up in a mortar to a mixture of coarse and fine pow- 
der, and 5 cubic centimeters (80 minims) of stronger ether adcled. 
The flask is then corked, and shaken vigorously until, by means of 
the glass, all the alkaloids have been detached from the flask and 
ground up, in the presence of the ether, into fine particles. In this 
way the definite quantity of ether which is large enough to dissolve 
all the quinine that coüld possibly be present becomes entirely 
saturated with alkaloids, in the proportion of their solubility, and 
the solution will necessarily embrace all the very soluble ones as 
the quinine. 

. “ Two test-tubes are now marked at the capacity of 10 cubic cen- 
timeters (160 minims) each,.and a funnel and Alter of 7 centime- 
ters (2.8 inches) diameter placed over one of them. The Alter is 
well wetted with ether, and the mixture of alkaloids, ether and 
glass poured on to it from the flask. The flask is rinsed out two 
or three times on to the Alter with fresh ether, the Alter then washed 
and the glass percolated with fresh ether, applied drop by drop 
from a pipette, until the liquid in the test-tube reaches the 10 
cubic centimeter (160 minim) mark. The funnel is then chano-ed 
to the other test-tube, and the washing and percolation with ether 
contmued until the mark on the second test-tube is reached by the 

small tared “T"' 3 ° f the T test - tu bes are poured into two 
small tared capsules evaporated to a constant weight and weighed 

The first capsule will contain what may be called the ether-sohible 

alkaloids, and if from the weight of these the weight of the residue 

the second capsule be subtracted, the remainder will be the 
approximate weight of the quinine extracted from the 5 orams of 



bark. These weights multiplied by 20 will give the percentage 
of ether-soluble alkaloids, and of quinine.” 

Another process, which is essentially that adopted by the Phar- 
macopceia Germanica (editio altera), but since improved by a slight 
modification, is as follows: — 

III. Twenty grams of the finely-powdered bark are repeatedly 
and actively agitated with a mixture of 10 grams of ammonia 
water (spec. grav. 0.960), 20 grams of alcohol (spec. grav. 0.830 
to 0.834), anc t l 7 ° grams of ether (spec. grav. 0.724 to 0.728), 
and, after Standing for a day, 1 20 grams of the clear liquid are 
poured off. After the addition of 30 cubic centimeters of one- 
tenth normal hydrochloric acicl (containing 3.65 grams HCl in 1 
liier) to the decanted liquid, the ether and alcohol are completely 
removed by distillation or evaporation, and, if necessary, so much 
hydrochloric acid added as is required to acidulate the solution. 
This is then filtered, and the cooled liquid mixed with 3.5 cubic 
centimeters of normal solution of potassium or sodium hydrate. 
After the alkaloids have been separated, the solution of alkali is 
added to the clear supernatant liquid until no further precipitate is 
produced. The entire precipitate is finally collected upon a filter, 
and gradually washed with a little water until the drops of liquid 
escaping front the filter, when allowed to fall upon the surface of 
a saturated neutral solution of quinine sulphate in cold water, no 
longer produce a turbidity. After being allowed to drain, the 
alkaloids are gently pressed between bibulous paper, then dried by 
exposure to the air sufficiently to admit of bringing thent into a 
glass capsule, in which they are placed over sulphuric acid, and 
finally completely dried in a water-bath. The weight of the dry 
alkaloids, which, according to the requirement of the Pharntacopceia 
Germanica, should amount to not less than 0.42 gram, or 3.5 per 
cent., does not relate to 20 grams of the powdered bark, but only 
to 12 grams of the same, since only 120 cubic centimeters of liquid 
were decanted. 

The alkaloids, which by this method are obtained somewhat less 
pure than by the preceding, may again be dissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid, precipitated by alkali, then taken up by Chloroform or 
ether, and, after the evaporation of the latter, weighed. 1 

The method of De Vrij, as adopted by the United States 
Pharmacopceia (Sixth Decennial Revision, 1880), for the assay ot 
Cinchona barks, is as follows : — 

1 Compare Prollius, Archiv, der Pharm., 219 ( 1 88 1 ) , p. 86; Biel, Ibid, 220 (1882), p. 
355; and H. Meyer, Ibid, 220, (1882), pp. 721, 812. The weight of the residue remain- 
tng upon the evaporation of the ether corresponds approximately to the amount of 


i. For Total Alkaloids. 


IV. “Twenty grams of the cinchona, in very fine powder, and 
fully dried at ioo° C. (212 F.), are thoroughly mixed with 5 grams 
of lime which has previously been made into a milk with 50 cubic 
centimeters of distilled water, and the mixture completely dried at 
a temperature not above 8o° C. (176° F.). The dried mixture is 
digested with 200 cubic centimeters of alcohol, in a flask, near the 
temperature of boiling, for one hour, and, when cool, the mixture 
poured upon a filter of about 15 centimeters (6 inches) diameter. 
The flask is rinsed and the filter washed with 200 cubic centimeters 
of alcohol, used in several portions, and allowing the filter to drain 
after the use of each portion. To the filtered liquid enough diluted 
sulphuric acid is added to render the liquid acid to test-paper, any 
resulting precipitate (calcium sulphate) allowed to subside, the 
liquid decanted, in portions, upon a very small filter, and the residue 
and filter washed with small portions of alcohol. The filtrate is 
then distilled or evaporated, to expel all the alcohol, allowed to 
cool, passed through a small filter, and the latter washed with dis- 
tilled. water, slightly acidulated with diluted sulphuric acid, until the 
washings are no longer made turbid by solution of sodium hydrate. 
To the filtered liquid, concentrated to the volume of about 50 cubic 
centimeters, when nearly cool, enough solution of sodium hydrate 
is added -to render it strongly alkaline. The precipitate is collected 
on a wetted filter, allowed to drain, and washed with small por- 
tions of distilled water (using as little as possible), until the wash- 
mgs give but a slight turbidity with test-solution of barium chloride, 
and the filter drained by laying it upon blotting or filter papers 
until it is nearly dry. 1 

The precipitate is then carefully detached from the filter, and 
transferred to a weighed capsule ; the filter is washed with distilled 
water, acidulated with diluted sulphuric acid, the filtrate made alka- 
line with solution of sodium hydrate, and, if a precipitate results 
this is washed on a very small filter, allowed to drain well, and also 
tiansferred to the capsule. The contents of the latter are now 
clried, at 100° C. (212 0 F.), to a constant weight, cooled in a dessi- 
cator, and weighed. The number of grams multiplied by c equals 
the percentage of total alkaloids in the cinchona.” 

The U. S. Pharmacopceia recognizes under “Cinchona” the bark 
cinchona containing at least 3 per cent. of its 

1 ccuhm a lk aloi ds, while the “Cinchona Flava” (Calisaya Bark) 

c nd Cinchona Rubra ’ (Red Bark) are required to contain at least 

2 per cent. 01 quinine. 



2. For Ouinine. 

“Io the total alkaloids f[om 20 grams of Cinchona, previously 
weighed, distilled water, acidulated with diluted sulphuric acid, is 
added, until the mixture remains for 10 or 15 minutes after diges- 
tion just distinctly acid to test-paper. It is then transferred to a 
weighed beaker, rinsing with distilled water, and adding of this 
enough to make the whole weigh 70 times the weight of the alka- 
loids. Solution of sodium hydrate, previously well diluted with 
distilled water, is now added, in drops, until the mixture is exactly 
neutral to test paper, digested at 6o° C. (140° F.), for 5 minutes, 
then cooled to 15 0 C. (59 0 F.), and maintained at this temperature 
for half an hour. If crystals do not appear in the glass vessel, the 
total alkaloids do not contain over 8 per cent. of their weight of 
quinine (corresponding to 9 per cent. of crystallized sulphate of 
quinine). If crystals appear in the mixture, the latter is passed 
through a filter not larger than necessary, prepared by drying two 
filter papers of 5 to 9 centimeters (2 to 3.5 inches) diameter, trim- 
ming them to an equal weight, folding them separately, and placing 
one within the other so as to make a plain filter fourfold on each 
side. When the liquid has drained away, the filter and contents 
are washecl with distilled water of a temperature of 15 0 C. (59 0 F.), 
added in small portions, until the entire filtered liquid weighs 90 
times the weight of the alkaloids taken. The filter is then dried, 
without separating its folds, at 6o° C. (140° F.) , to a constant 
weight, allowed to cool, and the inner filter and contents weighed, 
taking the outer filter for a counter weight. To the weight of 
effloresced quinine sulphate so obtained, 11.5 per cent. of its 
amount is added (for water of crystallization), and 0.12 per cent. 
of the weight of the entire filtered liquid added (for solubility of 
the crystals at 15 0 C. or 59 0 F). The sum in grams multiplied by 
5 equals the percentage of crystallized quinine sulphate equivalent 
to the quinine in the cinchona.” 

For the preparation of the extracts and tinctures, as also for the 
direct application of the bark in dispensing, it suffices to know the 
total amount of alkaloids. One must furthermore convince him- 
self that quinine is present, by dissolving 1 part of the crude alkaloid 
in the smallest possible quantity of hydrochloricacid, precipitating the 
bases with caustic soda, decanting the liquid, and agitating the 
deposit with 20 parts of ether. The etherial solution is allowed to 
evaporate, and 1 part of the residue boiled with 300 parts of water 
and filtered, when, upon cooling, some quinine separates out. If 



to 5 parts of the clear liquid there be added i part of chlorine 
water, it must assume a beautiful green color upon the direct 
addition of a few drops of ammonia water. 

If it is desired to ascertain how much quinine is contained in a 
mixture of alkaloids, the latter must be accurately neutralized with 
either dilute sulphuric acid or with tartaric acid, as above described; 
the corresponding salts of quinine, on account of their sparing 
solubility, may readily be separated from those of the associate 
alkaloids. 1 

The Solutions of quinine and of cinchonidine, and their salts, de- 
viate the plane of polarization to the left, in proportion to the amount 
of these bases contained therein. The Solutions of cinchonine and 
quinidine (conquinine) show an opposite behavior. With consid- 
eration of these facts, De Vrij has founded an optical method for 
the quantitative estimation of these alkaloids, 2 which, as further 
developed by A. C. Oudemans, 3 affords in very experienced hands 
goocl results. 

A more recent method adopted by De Vrij 4 for the quantitative 
estimation of quinine consists in precipitating the latter in the form 
of herapcithite , 4C ao H a4 N a O a + 3H 2 S0 4 + 2 Hl + 4I +3H 2 0, by 
means of a solution of iodosulphate of chinoidine. 

1. Preparation of the Iodosulphate of Chinoidine. — One part 
of commercial chinoidine and two parts of benzol are heated to- 
gether on a water-bath, whereby a solution of chinoidine in benzol 
is obtained. The clear solution, after cooling, is poured off from 
the insoluble part and agitated with an excess of diluted sulphuric 
acid, which, combining with the chinoidine dissolved in the benzol, 
yields a reddish-yellow solution of acid sulphate of chinoidine. To 
this clear solution, contained in a capsule, a solution of one part ol 
iodine and two parts of potassium iodide in fifty parts of water is 
slowly added, with continuous stirring, so that no part of the solu- 
tion of chinoidine comes in contact with an excess of iodine. One 
part of iodine is required for two parts of chinoidine contained in 
the acid solution. By this addition an orange-colored flocculent 
precipitate of iodosulphate of chinoidine is formed, which, either 
spontaneously or by a slight elevation of temperature, collects into 
a dark brown-red, resinous substance, while the supernatant liquid 

1 Compare Flückiger, Pharmaceutische Chemie, 1878, p. 414. 

2 Pharm. Journ., II (1871), 521, 642. 

ianda°üIs°X ™ ^s) mT X 877 ). prmCipaUX alkaloMes des Quinquina. Archiv es neer- 

qui nf^e Tstürwantmg. ( l882) ’ P ' Ö01 ' A method for the ra P id quantitative estimation of 



becomes clear and slightly yellow. This liquid is poured off, 1 and 
the resinous substance is washed by heating it on a water-bath 
with distilled water ; after washing it is heated on a water-bath 
until all the water has evaporated. It is then soft and tenacious at 
the temperature of the water-bath, but becomes hard and brittle 
after cooling. One part of this substance is now heated on a water- 
bath with six parts of alcohol of ninety-two or ninety-four per cent., 
and is thus dissolved, and the solution allowed to cool. On cooling, 
a part of the dissolved substance becomes separated. The clear, 
dark-colored solution is evaporated on a water bath and the residue 
dissolved in five parts of cold alcohol. This second solution leaves 
a small portion of insoluble substance. The clear solution obtained 
by the Separation of this insoluble matter, either by decantation or 
filtration, constitutes the reagent employed for the qualitative and 
quantitative estimation of crystallizable quinine. 

2. Estimation of Quinine. — To determine the quantity of qui- 
nine contained in the mixed alkaloids obtained from a cinchona 
bark, one part (one gram) of these alkaloids is dissolved in twenty 
parts of alcohol, of ninety-two or ninety-five per cent., containing 
1.5 per cent. of H 2 S 0 4 , and this solution is diluted with fifty parts 
of pure alcohol. From this solution the quinine is separated at the 
ordinary temperature , by aclding carefully, by means of a pipette, 
the above-mentioned solution of iodosulphate of chinoidine as long 
as a dark brown-recl precipitate of iodosulphate of quinine (/ hera - 
patJiite ) is formed. As soon as all the quinine has been precipitated, 
and a slight excess of the reagent has been added, the liquid 
acquires an intense yellow color. The beaker containing the liquid 
with the precipitate is now covered by a watch-glass, and heated 
until the liquid begins to boil and all the precipitate is dissolved. 
The beaker is then left to itself, and, in cooling, the herapathite is 
separated in the well-known beautiful crystals. After twelve hours’ 
rest, the beaker is weighed, to ascertain the amount of liquid, which 
is necessary in order to be able to apply later the necessary cor- 
rection, the herapathite being very slightly soluble in cold alcohol. 
The clear liquid is poured off, as far as possible, on a filter, leaving 
most of the crystals in the beaker, which is now weighed again, to 
ascertain the amount of liquid, and the weight noted. The few 
crystals on the filter are now washed down into the beaker, and as 
much alcohol added as is necessary to redissolve all the crystals at 
the boiling point. The object of this redissolving is to be absolutely 

1 To prevent the use of an excess of iodine, the amount of the latter is intentionally 
made insufficient to precipitate all the chinoidine in the form of iodosulphate. Therefore 
the liquid still contains chinoidine, which can be obtained in a very pure state if a little 
sulphurous acid is added before precipitating the alkaloid by sodium hydrate. 



certain that by surface attraction no trace of iodosulphate of 
cinchonidine has adhered to the crystals of herapathite. After 
perfect cooling, the weight of the beaker is ascertainecl again, the 
crystals of herapathite carefully collected on a small filter, and the 
empty beaker again weighed. The difference in weight will indi- 
cate the amount of liquid, which is added to that of the first liquid, 
and from the sum of this addition the necessary correction is cal- 
culated. If the Operation is effected at a temperatu re of i6° C. 
(6o.8° F.), the weighed quantity of the two liquids will indicate the 
correction if multipliecl by 0.125 and divided by 100. If the tem- 
perature be lower or higher, the solubility of herapathite at that 
temperature must be ascertained by experiment, which can easily 
be performed by a Standard solution of hyposulphite (thiosulphate) 
of sodiufn, as 21.58 parts of iodine found by this reagent indicate 
100 parts of herapathite. The herapathite collected on the filter 
is thoroughly washed with a saturated alcoholic solution of pure 
herapathite, and after this washing is completed the liquid retained 
by the crystals is expelled as much as possible by slightly knocking 
the side of the funnel. The filter is then taken from the funnel 
and laid upon blotting paper, often renewed, to take away as 
quickly as possible the still adhering liquid. As soon as the filter 
is air-dry, the crystals of herapathite can be completely removed 
from the filter and dried on awater-bath in one of acouple of large 
watch-glasses closing tightly upon each other, so that the weight of 
the substance contained in the glass may be taken without the 
access of the air. If, after repeatedly weighing, the weight remains 
constant, it is noted, and to itis added the product of the calculated 
correction. The sum of this addition is the total amount of iodo- 
sulphate of quinine obtained from the mixed alkaloids subjected to 
the Operation, and from this weight the amount of quinine can be 
calculated from Jörgensen’s formula: 4 C 2O H 24 N 2 0 2 + 3H 2 S0 4 + 

2 HI + I 4 . According to this formula one part of herapathite, dried 
at ioo° C. (21 2 0 F.), represents 0.55055 parts of pure anhydrous 



The preparation of quinine and the other alkaloids on a manu- 
facturing scale consists likewise in separati ng them from the Com- 
pounds in which they are contained in the bark, by means of liine. 
From the moist mixture, containing lime, the bases are extracted by 
means of warm shale oil, brown coal-tar oil, or petroleum of a low 



boiling point, or also by means of alcohol. In the latter case the 
alcohol is distilled off, 1 the residue taken up by a dilute acid, and 
the alkaloids precipitated from the solution by means of caustic 
soda. From the Solutions of the alkaloids in the hydrocarbons the 
bases may be still more conveniently taken up by dilute acids, and 
precipitated therefrom by caustic soda. If the washed precipitates 
are dissolved, by the aid of heat, in dilute sulphuric acid, avoiding 
an excess of the latter, there separates, upon cooling, neutral and 
quite pure sulphate of quinine, while the sulphates of the other 
alkaloids, in consequence of their much greater solubility, remain 
for the most part in the mother liquid. The purification of the 
sulphate of quinine is effected by recrystallization. 

In India, Broughton (1870), in consequence of an impulse given 
by Markham, has taken into consideration the Separation of the 
alkaloids in the cheapest manner. According to the Suggestion of 
De Vrij (1872), which has been carried out since 1873 by Wood, 
the bark is extracted with water, to which some hydrochloric acid 
has been added, and the bases precipitated by means of caustic 
soda. The precipitate, after being washed, is dissolved in dilute 
sulphuric acid, again precipitated by caustic soda, and subsequently 
washed and dried. In 1876 the average percentage composition 
of such a “ Febrifuge,” 2 which had been prepared by Wood, in 
Sikkim, from the bark of Cinchona succirubra, was found to be as 
follows : Cinchonine, 33.5 ; cinchonidine, 29.0; amorphous alka- 
loids, 17.0; quinine, 15.5; and coloring matter, 5.0. It is now 
purified to such an extent as to form a white crystalline powder. 
In 1877 it was calculated by the English Government that the 
“Febrifuge,” with consideration of all expenses, could be placed at 
but little more than 60 marks (about fifteen dollars) per kilogram. 
It should accordingly be presumed that great significance would 
be attributed to this cheap remedy for India; it appears, however, 
at least in Madras, to enjoy no favor. 

1 Hereby cinchonine crystallizes out, when it is present in abundant amount. 

2 Also designated by De Vrij as “ Quinetum.” Compare Jahresbericht der Pharm., 
1876, p. 142, and 1878, p. in, as also the Blue Books, 1870-1875, fol. 126. “ Febrifuge” 
is now being made at Mungpoo, British Sikkim ; 6196 pounds of it were used in 1881, 
in the Government hospitals and dispensaries in India. 





The agreeably odorous legumes of the Peru balsam tree, Tolui- 
fera Pereirse Baillon (Myroxylon Pereirae Klotzsch), and to a greater 
degree die very similar legumes of the much more widely distrib- 
uted Myroxylon peruiferum L. fil., have presumably been for a long 
time in medicinal use in Central America and in the northern portion 
of South America. 1 The latter in the northwestern part of South 
America are still called Pepitas (kerneis) de Quina-quina , Quino- 
quino or Kina-kina? According to Chifflet 3 and Joseph de Jussieu, 
as also according to Ch. M. de la Condamine, 4 the febrifuge bark 
had been referred to the same tree, and it is for this reason that 
the same designation has been transferred to it, which has finally 
become simplified into Quina , Kina , or China. In the South Amer- 
ican languages, by a duplication of the sound, a superior quality of 
the respective substance is emphasized. Although the designation 
“ Quina-quina ” was adopted by the Europeans, the Spanish ex- 
pression, “ Cascarilla,” obtained by the natives, even in Condamine’s 
time, the supremacy. 

From the time of the first Spanish invasion of Peru, in 1513, no 
proofs of an early acquaintance of the natives with Cinchona bark have 
been transmitted, although Arrot 5 and Condamine, as also Jussieu, 
heard it statecl in Loxa that such was the case, and, in concurrence 
with Ruiz and Pavon, found the reports worthy of credence. Ac- 
cording to these Statements, the Peruvians had kept the Spaniards 
uninformed regarding the medicinal virtues of the Cinchona, and 
in Loxa, e. g., they had been known from a much earlier period 
than in Lima. The acceptance of this Statement appears to have 
been generally prevalent, at least towarcl the encl of the seventeenth 
Century, as the reminiscences of the past ages were still more 
active. That precise Statements are wanting is explained by the 

entire deficiency of written documents from the old kingdom of 
the Incas. ö 

1 Compare Flückiger’s Pharmakognosie, 2d edition, pp. 124, 131, 132, 136. 

* Y e 7 dde11, HisL nat des Q uin 9™nas, pp. 15, 22.— Cross, Blue Book, 1866, p. 276. 
Pulvis febrifugus Orbis Americani ventilatus. Brussels, 1653. 

ors'to^oSn J h / 6 n ° ble ?ar ) si T d L u ^ ist - Pi erre Pomet, made honest endeav- 

Histoire generale des Drogues," which appeared in 1694, more ac- 

and -74., No. 446 . 



Wellcome 1 shares the opinion, which he heard from the natives, 
that their ancestors were acquainted with the Cinchona bark before 
the Spanish conquest, although it has not been met with as yet in 
the ancient tombs of the Incas, as, e. g., is the case with coca 
leaves. The reverse conviction, which is universally prevalent, is 
explained by Wellcome from the fact that it was the endeavor of 
the Spanish conquerors to appropriate to themselves all such hon- 
ors. Digressive views have, ho wever, also become current. Sincethe 
Peruvians adhere with thegreatest tenacity to transmitted customs, 
and even at the present time do not employ Cinchona, but, on the 
contrary, regarcl it with fear, Humboldt 2 concludes that the case 
must have been similar with their ancestors. Markham, 3 who 
traveled through Peru in 1859, confirms the Statement that the 
wallets of the native itinerant doctors, 4 who, according to a very 
ancient custom prevailing throughout the entire country, travel 
from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata to Ecuador, do not contain 
cinchona bark, although these still highly celebrated “ Botänicos 
del Imperio de los Incas,” also called Chiritmanos or Collahuayas , 
live in the West Bolivian province of Munecas, in the region of 
the best Cinchona trees. There prevails im general, as Pöppig 
(1830) and Spruce (1859) found, 5 6 precisely in the Cinchona dis- 
tricts, a strong repugnance to this remedy, even in Guayaquil. 

The most probable view, however, is afforded that the earliest 
knowledge of Cinchona remained confined to the neighborhood of 
Loxa. Although the Spaniards were firmly located there as early as 
the middle of the sixteenth Century, their earliest authors from that 
district are silent in regard to the Cinchona, even to the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth Century. Here, in the village of Malaca- 
tos, a traveling Jesuit is said to have been cured by a cacique 6 of 
a fever by means of cinchona, and to have extended a knowledge 
of the remedy. To the same place and the same remedy the 
Spanish corregidor of Loxa, Don Juan Lopez de Canizares, is said 
to owe his recovery from intermittent fever, in 1630. 

1 Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1879, P- 83°. 

2 Page 6o of the essay mentioned on p. 24, Note 2. Also a manuscript seen by Ch. 
P. von Martius, entitled “Memoria sobre el estado de las Quinas en particular sobre la 
de Loxa,” which was written between the years 1803 and 1809, noticesthe intense preju- 
dice of the Indians against the use of the “ Cascarilla.” — Bulletin der Münchener Akad- 
emie , 1846, No. 55 ; Gelehrte Anzeigen, p. 342. 

3 Clements R. Markham. “Two Journeys in Peru,” 1862, 2. The German Transla- 
tion, Leipsic, 1865, 186. 

4 Compare Beck, in Petermann’s Geogr. Mittheilungen, 1866, p. 377 ; also Markham, 
“ Peruvian Bark,” 162. 

5 Compare also the Blue Book , 1863, p. 75. 

6 Priest of the worshipers of the sun. 



On the uth of August, 1621, Ana de Osorio, widow of Don 
Luis de Velasco, married Don Luis Geronimo Fernandez de Ca- 
brera y Bobadilla, of Madrid, the fourth Count of Chinchon. The 
year 1628 brought to the Count the highest distinction that was at- 
tainable in Spain — he was appointed Viceroy of Peru, 1. e., regent 
of the entire Spanish territory in South America. On the I4th of 
January, 1 629, the vice-regal pair entered Lima. 1 As the Count- 
ess, in 1638, was prostrated by a fever in the palace at Lima, the 
same corregidor of Loxa sent Cinchona bark to the vice-regal 
physician, Dr. Juan de Vega. In the treatment of the Countess 
Chinchon the virtues of the remedy were also confirmed, so that 
she caused it to be distributed in Lima. 2 Even here the powdered 
bark acquired the name of Polvo de la Condesa (Countess Powder). 
A knowledge of this febrifuge must have very soon penetrated 
into Spain, even if it may be doubted that this took place as early 
as the year 1632, before the eure of the Countess, as has been 
stated by Villerobel. 3 In 1639 Cinchona bark certainly appears to 
have been used in Alcala de Henares, near Madrid. 4 

Perhaps, also, with relation to the first Jesuit treated therewith at 
Malacatos, the bark soon received the name of Polvo de les 
Jesuitos , as this Order, especially through the Cardinal connected 
therewith, Juan de Lugo, residing at Rome, began to zealously 
adopt the new remedy. 5 As Nicolas Lemery declared, the Jesuits 
derived great profit therefrom. In the meantime, however, the 
same physician, Juan de Vega, on the occasion of the return of the 
viceroy to Spain, had, as early as 1640, likewise taken Cinchona 
with him, and, e. g. sold the same in Seville at 100 reals (about 100 
dollars) per pouncl. 

The Cardinal de Lugo, Attorney-General of the Order of Jesuits, 
had, as it appears, the superintendence of a pharmacy belonging 
to them, but permitted, however, also in his palace the distribution 
of cinchona bark to the indigent sick, which, therefore, became 
known as “Pulvis eminentissimi Cardinalis de Lugo,” or “Pulvis 

1 With regard to the Count Chinchon, who conducted the Government of Peru until 
the 17m of December, 1639, compare also Flückiger’s Pharmakognosie , p. 85. 

2 With relation to the earliest history of the cinchona barks, compare further the publi- 

cations of H von Bergen, Weddell and Markham, which are mentioned by name in 
bection 18 of this work. J 

3 H. von Bergen, 84, 90. 

i 4 S f o f ian0 Bad °' Anastasis > Corticis Peruvia, seu China China defensio. Genoa, 

born^n'fcR^l’AiC A Universelle, Paris, 1821, Juan de Lugo was 
in 1 J , adri ü’ ente r ed Order of the Jesuits in 1603, was made a Cardinal 

MemltnrFhf^ r ?- 0m 7 e . l n .. l6do - A J S0 the same, according to Lorenzo Cardeila, 
Mem. stonche de Cardmali della Santa Romana Chiesa VII. (Roma, 1797) 47 



patrum.” 1 In 1649, de Lugo, in passing through Paris, recom- 
mended the remedy to the Cardinal Mazarin for the young Louis 
XIV, who was sick with a fever. The Jesuits in Rome received 
at this time a quantity of Cinchona from their Provincial from 
America, who, in 1643, went to the Chapter of the Order at 
Rome. 2 Michael Belga at this time likewise brought Cinchona from 
Lima to Antwerp and Brussels. 

Belgian physicians likewise contributed materially to the knowl- 
edge and distribution of Cinchona. Through Chifflet, physician 
to the Archduke Leopold, of Austria, Governor of the Netherlands, 
this was effected in a publication which appeared at Brussels, in 
1653 (or 1651 ?), entitled “Pulvis febrifugus Orbis Americani ven- 
tilatus.” Although Chifflet prized the Cinchona bark as a rnarvel 
of his time, he recommended it, however, so mildly that a heatecl 
controversy 3 arose, in which, e. g. Glantz (1653), an imperial phy- 
sician at Ratisbon, as also Godoy, a physician of the Spanish King, 
and Moreau and Plempius (1655) stood and wrote in Chifflet’s de- 
fence. As active opponents of these physicians there appears 
decidedlyin favor of the bark the Jesuit, Honoratius Faber, Fonseca, 
physician to Pope Innocent II, Sebastian Bado, 4 of Genoa, and 
especially, in 1653, Doctor Roland Sturm, 5 of Louvain. The latter 
communicates also, the detailed directions for its use in 1651, which 
the apothecaries of Rome were accustomed to give with the bark 
when dispensing it. 6 

The Cinchona began to be known in England about the year 
1655, ant ^ ' m x 658 was repeatedly advertised for sale in the “ Mer- 
curius Politicus,” one of the earliest newspapers of England, by 
the Antwerp merchant, James Thompson, as “ the exccllent poivder 
known by the nanie of the Jesuits Powder. Brady and Willis, two 
distinguished English physicians, prescribed Cinchona bark in the 
year 1660. 7 

It is very remarkable that Cinchona bark is not contained in the 
Pharmacopoeia of the Hague, of the year 1659; in 1664 it was 
designated a dutiable product at Lyons. 8 

1 Roland Sturm. Febrifugi Peruviani vindiciarum pars pnor : Pulveris histonam 

complectens ejusquc vires et proprietates exhibens. Delphis, 1659, 12 0 . 

2 Chiffletius, 1 . c. ; Sprengel, Geschichte der Ar zntly finde, IV (Halle, 1827), 513. 

3 The more complete title of these older publications is given by H. von Bergen, 
pp. 1-72 ; also in Merat et De Len’s Dictionnaire de Mat. Med. V (1833), p. 632. 

4 Page 83, note 4. 5 Note 1. 

6 “ Modo di adoprare la corteccia chiamata della febre,” reprinted in Flückiger and 

Hanbury’s Pharmacographia, second edition, p. 343. 

7 See Pharmacographia, second edition, p. 344. 

8 Martiny, Rohwaarenkunde, I (1843), p. 3. 



In Germany, “ China Chintz ” is met with in the pharmaceutical 
tariffs of Leipsic and Frankfort for the year 1669. According to 
the latter, one “quint” (öne-eighth of an ounce) cost 50 kreuzers 
(about 38 cents), whereas the same amount of Opium was quoted 
at 4 kreuzers, camphor at 2 kreuzers, and balsam of Peru at 8 

It is conceivable that at that time other barks possessing a bitter 
taste might be mistaken for Cinchona bark. An indeed very re- 
markable example of this kind is afforded by the Cascarilla bark' 
from Croton Eluteria, a small tree belonging to the family of 
Euphorbiaceae. This drug from the West Inches, which possesses 
a bitter, but at the same time, however, a strongly aromatic taste, 
made its appearance in Germany toward the close of the seven- 
teenth Century, under the name of China nova ; but, as it appears, 
soon passed into oblivion, and at the beginning of this Century the 
same name was again bestowecb upon an entirely different bark, 
namely, that of Cascarilla magnifolia (mentioned on p. 48). It 
may, indeed, be accepted that in the meantime still other barks 
were frequently confused with or used to adulterate the Cinchona 
barks. 2 

The further distribution of Cinchona was advanced in a high 
degree by Robert Talbor, a physician who emanated from a phar- 
macy in Cambridge, and who, in 1672, made himself known 
through the publication of “ Pyretologia, a rational account of the 
cause and eure of agues," in which also “ Jesuits’ Powder ” is spoken 
of. In 1678 Talbor was appointed physician to King Charles II, 
and also made a knight ; in 1 679 he treated the King at Windsor 
with Cinchona, and received then also not less favor at the French 
Court. 3 . It is remarkable that Talbor knew how to envelop his 
eures with such secrecy that he was able to make his chief remedy, 
cinchona bark, contribute in the most successful manner to his 
personal profit. As, in 1681, after Talbor’s cleath, King Louis XIV 
caused the composition of the remedy to be made known, cinchona 
bark was revealed as its chief constituent, and now attracted the 
renewed attention of physicians. 4 

A worthy successor of Talbor, Nicolas Blegny, 5 likewise physi- 

1 Flückiger, Pharmakognosie, second edition, p. 573. 

2 Compare Flückiger, Pharmakognosie, 2d edition, under Quassia, p. 461 ; Pharma - 
cographia, 2d edition, p. 106 — Quina de Caroni. 

3 Merat et De Lens, Dictionnaire de Matiere 7 ticdicale, V (1833), 627. 
editi^n'pp 00 ^?^ 76°6 mati0n rCgarding Talbor is con tained in ’p/iarmacograßhia, 2d 

tinn ÄS"? f urther / e S ar d in g the character of this swindler, who followed the occupa- 

Grave Pans » " ntil . in ‘686, he was placed in the Bastüe. 

Orave, Etat de la Pharmacie e?i France. Mantes, 187p, p. 17p 



cian to Ludwig XIV, dedicated in 1682 to the “ Remede Anglais,” 
an oft-quoted pamphlet. The first physician of the King, Antoine 
d Aquin, and hagon, physician to the Queen, were commissioned 
to receive from Talbor the secret recipe. 1 Fagon, in 1 704, assigned 
to the F ranciscan botanist, Charles Plumier, who was to undertake 
his fourth journey to South America, the commission to determine 
the origin of the Cinchona barks. Plumier died, however at 
Cadiz. 2 

In the meantime, living Cinchonas had already found their way to 
London, or were cultivated there from seed, 3 and for a not unin- 
teresting short report on the “ Peruvian Bark” or “ Jesuits’ Bark,” 
we are indebted to the Scotch surgeon, William Arrot, who, about 
the year 1730, had made observations in Loxa. 4 He described 
accurately the work of the Cascarilleros, and, even at this time, ex- 
pressed solicitude regarding the extermination of the trees. 



The knowledge of the Cifichonas was introducecl in a scientific 
spirit by the otherwise celebrated expedition of the Paris Academy. 
In their commission, the astronomers, Charles Marie de la Conda- 
mine, Bouguer and Godin, were occupied, from the year 1736 to 
1744, in measuring the arc of a degree in Peru. At the same time 
improving every opportunity for the advancement of other branches 
of natural Science, Condamine, in accordance with the directions of 
Joseph de Jussieu, on the 4th of February, 1737, on the journey 
from Quito, by way of Cuenca, to Lima, observed one of the Cin- 
chona trees on the mountain of Cajanuma, 2^ leagues southward 
from Loxa, which Arrot (page 81) had also already named. In 
the following year Condamine’s 5 description and figure of his 
“arbre de quinquina” was laid before the Paris Academy, and was 
published by the latter in 1740. According to Howard, this first 

1 Les admirables qualitez die Kinakina, confirmees par plusieurs experiences. Paris, 

Jouvenel libraire, 1689. 164 pages, in 8°. (Without the name of the author). 

2 Cap, Etudes (mentioned on p. 47). 

3 According to the short notice in Semple, Mcmoirs of the Botanic Garden at Chelsca, 
belonging to the Society of Apothecaries in London, 1878, p. 16 : “ In 1685, August 7th, 
I went to see M. Watts, Keeper of the Apothecaries’ Garden of Simples at Chelsea, 
where there is a collection of innumerable variety of that sort; particularly .... 
the tree bearing Jesuits' bark, which had done such wonders in quartan agues.” 

4 See p. 81, Note 5. 

5 Hist, de l'acad. roy. des Sciences, ann, 1738, avec les wem. de math. et de phys. pour 
la meme annee. Paris, 1740, pp. 226-243. 



described Cinchona tree is the Cinchona officinalis, Var. a or ß 
Uritusinga of die present day. Jussieu, the botanist of the above- 
mentioned French expedition, who was moreover also an engineer 
and physician, collected likewise, in 1 739, near Loxa, a Cinchona — 
the subsequent C. pubescens Vahl. Mutis also soon received what 
was presumably the same, from the same district, and sent it to 
Linnaeus. The latter, in honor of the Countess Chinchon , as shown 
011 page 18, did not name the genus Chinchona, but Cinchona. 
This orthography has also found universal acceptance, and, in 1 866, 
was even sanctioned by a resolution of the International Botanical 
Congress at London. 1 Markham, to whom we are indebted for a 
handsome publication, 2 dedicated to the memory of the Countess 
Chinchon, had effectuated that the English authorities at first made 
use of the orthography Chinchona. 

In the beginning of the eighteenth Century the commerce in 
barks at Loxa was already much developed ; and it was necessary 
for good barks to be recommended by a certificate of their origin 
from this locality. In Payta (5 0 S. lat.), the nearest port, an exam- 
ination of the bark for adulterations was already established. 3 

In 1752 the “ Superintendente general de la moneda,” Superin- 
tendent of the mint at Santa Fe, Don Miguel Santisteban, was 
delegated to go to Loxa, in Order to organize the commerce in Cin- 
chona bark. He reported thereon, in 1755, to the respective ad- 
ministration, “Estanco de Cascarilla,” and added that he had met 
on the way with Cinchona trees. Among these, according to 
Triana, 4 was also the present Cinchona cordifolia, which Santisteban 
had found between Pasta and Barruecos, in the southwestern part 
of New Granada. He brought specimens of the plant with him 
for Mutis, who visited Santa Fe in 1761. 

Jose Celestino Mutis, who was born at Cadiz in 1 732, arnved in 
1760 at Carthagena, in New Granada, with the newly-appointed 
viceroy, the Marquis de Vega, as his physician, 5 and soon found an 
opportumty to make apphcation of his botanical knowledge in the 
exploration of the flora of that country. He first started from 

1 Howard, Observations on the present state of our knowledge of the genus Cinchona . 

Proceedi ngs of the Internat. Horticult. Exhibition and Botanical Congress, held in 
London, 1866, p. 195-223. Abstracted in the Archiv der Pharm., 130(1867) p. nt and 
more completely in Büchners Refertorfür Pharm., 17 (1868), p. 65 F ^ 

2 Title under section 18, No. 22. 

* Pharmacographia, second edition, p. 345. 

4 Ctudes, title under section 18. 
p. 24, note 2. 

Mn 1772 Mutis entered a religious Order, and afterward became a teacher of mathe- 
i8c> 9? S and r ° n0my at Santa F6 de B °g° td - where he died, on the 2d of September, 

Also Humboldt, p. 113, of the essay mentioned on 



Cäcota and La Montuosa, near Pamplona, then, since 1782, from 
Real del Sapo and Mariquita, at die foot of die Quindia, and, 
finally, since 1784, at the head of an “Expedicion botanica del 
Nuevo Reino de Granada,” in Santa Fe. 

In the meantime (1776) Don Sebastian Jose Lopez Ruiz 1 pre- 
sented to the viceroy in Santa Fe a Cinchona, which, according to 
Triana, was Cinchona lancifolia , or Tunita , in the language of 
that country. This species (p. 18) grows only in the eastern dis- 
trict of the Cordilleras of Bogota. Mutis himself, before his re- 
moval to the Capital, explored only the Western chain of mountains 
at the upper part of the Magdalena River, near Mariquita, Tena, 
and Honda, where, according to the experience of Triana, no true 
Cinchona grows. The pretended Cinchona found by Mutis in this 
district, in the year 1771, is rather simply one of the species of 
Cascarilla comprehended by him under the name of C. oblongifolia, 
probably Cascarilla magnifolia (compare p. 48). The Cinchona 
collected by Mutis, in 1766, in the province of Pamplona, north- 
ward from Santa Fe, is also, according to Triana, only Cosmibuena 
obtusifolia Ruiz et Pavon, and by 110 means a true febrifuge tree. 

All of the true Cinchonas which are contained in the “ Quino- 
logia de Bogota,” of Mutis, under the names of C. lancifolia and 
C. cordifolia, were discovered by Santisteban, Lopez Ruiz, or his 
nephew, Sinforoso Mutis, and the pupilsof theformer; nota single 
one by Celestino Mutis himself. 

Triana produces valid reasons for this Statement, so that the 
contention for priority, which at that time was carried on with 
much animosity between Mutis on the one liand and Ruiz and 
Pavon on the other, together with the adherents of both parties, is 
herewith brought to a close. In consequence of Mutis having 
transferred the name of Red Cinchona , Quina, or Cascarilla colo- 
rada , or roja to the worthless bark of the trees which he named 
Cinchona oblongifolia, containing no quinine, whereas it properly 
belongs only to the bark of C. succirubra, rieh in alkaloid, a com- 
plication ensued, which was first removed by the discovery of qui- 
nine, in the year 1820. 

After the Cinchona barks, since about the year 1 640, had only 
been exported from Peru and Ecuador of the present day, through 
the activity which Mutis and his pupils developed in the north- 
western part of the South American Continent, the attention of 
botanists and merchants was directed to the Cinchona trees of this 

1 This otherwise insignificant man appeared as an Opponent of Mutis in the publica- 
tion : Defensa y demonstracion del verdadero descubridor de las Quinas del reino de 
Sanla Fe. Madrid, 1802 (Colmeiro p.69). Compare further, Triana, Etudcs, p. 45. 



district. From a practical point of view, it was, indeed, important 
enough to no longer be compelled to transport the barks around 
Cape Horn or over the Isthmus of Panama. This result remains in 
its significance uncontended to the favor of Mutis even though 
Triana has proved that it was not Mutis himself who first recog- 
nized a Cinchona outside of the above-mentioned original Cinchona 

The particular circumstances of the personal meeting of Hum- 
boldt with Mutis at Santa Fe de Bogota, in the year 1801, were, 
indeed, as Triana has shown, of so happy a nature that it may 
readily be conceived how Humboldt was led to esteem theSpanish 
dilettante higher than posterity, which is more inclined to estimate 
the achievements alone, independent of the background of the 
Station in life of the respective individual. 

Humboldt and Bonpland took consideration of the Collection of 
Mutis, and rendered prominent therefrom the particularly hand- 
somely executed colored drawings of the plants of his district. 
Humboldt, in a biography, 1 written with warm recognition, dedi- 
cates to this man a memorial replete with honor, which even Lin- 
nseus has over-estimated, and termed “phytologorum americanorum 

In 1 777 the Spanish Government appointed Hipolito Ruiz 
director of a natural Science expedition for the exploration of Peru 
and Chili. Ruiz, accompanied by Jose Pavon and the French 
botanist, Joseph Dombey (p. 47), arrived in 1778, at Lima, and, 
after the return of the latter, continued his labors with Pavon. In 
1788 they likewise went again to Madrid, where Ruiz, in 1792, as 
the first fruit of the expedition, published the Qmnologia ; this was 
followed, in the years 1798 to 1802, by the Flora peruviana et 
chilensis. In Peru and Chili the task of Ruiz and Pavon was 
continued by their pupil, Juan Tafalla, who, in turn, was assisted 
by Mancilla, and likewise contributed to the knowlecGe of the 

While Mutis did not bring his labors to any conclusion, and the 
botamcal collection left by him, perhaps not even complete, first 

1 Biographie Universelle, Tome XXX, Paris, 1821. The celehntpd 
V C Jj al A- H T k m . boldt and Bonpland have adorned with a handsome likeness of Mutis" 





arrived at Madrid about the year 1820, and has remained deposited 
there, 1 Ruiz publisbed in the Quinologia, and in 1801, conjointly 
with Pavon, in a Supplement thereto, the most important results re- 
lating to the Cinchonas. 1 he material left by the latter has served 
in our day for the foundation of the magnificent work of Howard. 
(See section 18, No. 9). 

The investigations of these botanists, to which we are indebted for 
the first knowledge of mostof the Cinchonas, led to a revolution in the 
commercial relations of the barks, in that, gradually, about the year 
1785, central and Southern Peru, as also New Granada, entered 
into competition with the district of Loxa, and began to export 
barks by way of Callao and the ports located on the Caribbean 

The selection of the barks which were at that time preferred 
was confined to the barks of the branches and twigs, although Con- 
damine hacl himself ascertained in Loxa that originally the strongest, 
and thus, presumably, the trunk barks, had been more highly valued. 
The greater difficulty of drying experienced with the thick trunk 
barks presumably contributed thereto that the collectors directed 
their attention more to the bark of the twigs. The Paris druggist, 
Pomet, 2 expressly recommended only the “ petites ecorces fines, 
noiratres et chagrinees au dessus, parsemees de quelques mousses 

blanches ” and likewise, in 1724, in the London 

market, according to the druggist, Berlu, 3 the thick, flat trunk barks 
were valued much less than the barks of the twigs. After the dis- 
covery of the cinchona alkaloids it was shown that the trunk barks, 
particularly the flat Calisaya, were usually richer in quinine, so that 
these were again more highly prized until, namely, Calisaya 
Ledgeriana furnished the proof that also in young barks much 
quinine can be formed. 

After the discovery of quinine and cinchonine the botanical and 
pharmacognostical investigation of the Cinchonas also received 
a new impulse, which was due, e. g., to the labors of Laubert, 
Lambert, and particularly in 1826 to Heinrich von Bergen’s 
‘Versuch einer Monographie der Chinarinden.” As a drug- 
broker in Hamburg, this industrious man, in his work, not only 
made application of a practical experience extending through 
many years, but also in other considerations placed everything 

1 Planchon, Quinqutnas, p. 14. 

2 Histoire generale des Drogues. 1694, p. 133. 

3 The treasury of drugs unlock' d. London, 1724 (first edition, 1690), “Cortex peruanus, 
Jesuits’ bark, China China, Cascarello, Cortex Patrum, from smaller twigs ; that which is 
very thick and flat is nothing near so good.” 



together which Science could offer regarding this subject; and 
especially with regard to die history of die remedy, reference 
must also be made to Bergen’s monograph. A valuable Supple- 
ment consistsin 7 colored plates with admirable figures of Cinchona 
rubra, Huänuco, Calisaya flava, Huamalies, Loxa and Jaen ; the 
descriptions of diese barks accomplished all that is possible with- 
out the aid of the microscope. 

For the application of this latter and most important aid in the 
study of the Cinchona barks, and for the first figurative representa- 
tions of the anatomical views thereby obtained, we are indebted to 
Weddell (died July 22, 1877). The extraordinary significance 
of his Histoire Naturelle des Quinquinas , the fruits of extended 
travels (1845 an d 1848) in Bolivia and Peru, has been everywhere 
in the preceding pages sufficiently valued. 

How much we are furthermore indebted to the two above fre- 
quently mentioned works of Howard and Karsten is manifest from 
this entire representation. In the “Florae Columbiae terrarumque 
adjacentium specimina selecta ” the latter gives, as the fruits of 
observations extending through many years at the place itself, 
descriptions and magnificent figures of Cinchona cordifolia, C. 
corymbosa, C. lancifolia, and C. tucujensis, as also a number of 
species still comp.rehended by him as Cinchonas, which, at the 
present time, are no longer enumerated among the latter, as has 
been explained on pages 10, 20 and 51. 

The knowledge of the Cinchonas received further enrichment 
through the likewise above-mentioned “Quinologie,” for the 
publication of which, in 1854, the quinine manufacturer Delondre, 
and the chemist and apothecary Bouchardat had associated, after 
the former (accidentally), in Weddell’s Company, had made a visit 
to the forests of Santa Ana, near Cusco. Among the 23 plates of 
this Quinologie are found not only the officinal Cinchona barks, 
but in general all those which occurred in the Wholesale trade of 
that time, together with some false Cinchona barks, very accurately 
reproduced ; with each bark the yield of alkaloid on a manu- 
factunng scale is designated. Phoebus 1 has dedicated to the barks 
ol flie “Quinologie an elaborate microscopical investigation. 

lhe conclusion of so many still open questions regardino- the 
Lmchonas remains to be hoped for through their forest cultivation 
concerning the development of which the interesting official reports 
ol the English and Dutch continually afford Information 
, would be very desirable to have a compiete systematic knowl- 
edge of the entire chvision of the Cinchonete, and the comparative 

1 Die Delondre Bouchardat' sehen Chinarinden. Giessen 1864, 8 3 , pp. 74. 



examination of the barks of every individual species from a Chemi- 
cal and anatomical point of view. 




1. Berg (Otto). Die Chinarinden der pharmakognostischen Samm- 
lung zu Be?'lin. Berlin, 1865. 48 pages and 10 plates. Quarto. 
Price 8 marks (about $2). The plates give transverse sections 
of the barks of the following Cinchonas : C. amygdalifolia, 
Calisaya, Chahuarguera, Condaminea, cordifolia, heterophylla, 
lancifolia, lucumaefolia, macrocalyx, micrantha, microphylla, nitida, 
ovata, Palton, Pelletiereana, scrobiculata, succirubra, umbellu- 
lifera, Uritusinga. Furthermore, transverse sections of Cinchona 
(China) nova surinamensis (from Cascarilla magnifolia, see 
page 48), and of the bark of Nauclea Cinchona D. C. 

2. Bergen (Heinrich von). Monographie der China. Hamburg, 

1826. 4 0 . 348 pagesand 7 colored plates, with figures of Cin- 

chona Calisaya, C. flava, C. Huamalies, C. Huanuco, C. Jaen, C. 
Loxa and C. rubra. 

3. Bidie. Cinchona culture in British India , being a bnef sketch of 

its origin , with practical hints on the chief points connected with 
the indnstry. Madras, 1879. 24 pages, with (not handsome) 

figures of Calisaya Ledgeriana and the so-called Cinchona “ pub- 
escens ” (mentioned on page 15). 

4. Blue Books. Under the titles of Return, East India, Cinchona 
Plant or Cinchona cultivation, are published the official proceed- 
ino-s which relate to the introduction of the Cinchonas into India 


and the British colonies. 1 

The following Blue Books, which are dedicated to this subject 
and its further development, have at present appeared (small 
folio with maps and wood-cuts ) : — 

a. Copy of Correspondence relating to the Introduction of the Cin- 
chona plant into India, etc., from March 1852 to March 1863. 
272 pages and 11 maps (Cinchona region in South America, en- 
virons of Lake Titicaca, Province of Caravaya, the Chimborazo). 

Contains correspondence of Royle, Markham, Spruce, 
Pritchett, Cross, Mclvor, Anderson and others. 

b. Copy of further Correspondence, etc. April 1863 to April 1866. 
379 pages, with two maps of New Granada and Southern India. 

1 The Blue Books can be purcha.sed at No. 13 Great Queen Street, Lincoln’s Inn 
Fields, London. 



Contains monthly reports of the plantations on the Neil- 
gherry Hills; annual reports for 1863-64, 1864-65, with details 
of method of propagation and cultivation, barking, mossing, 
attacks of insects, illustrated by wood-cuts and 4 plates ; report 
of Cross’s journey to Pitayo, with map ; Cinchona cultivation in 
Wynaad, Coorg, the Pulney Hills and Travancore, with map ; in 
British Sikkim, the Kangra Valley (Punjab,) the Bombay Presi- 
dency and Ceylon. 

c. Copy of all Correspondence, etc. April 1866 to April 1870. 
285 pages and one map of Southern India. 

Contains reports on the Neilgherry and other plantations ; 
appointment of Mr. Broughton as analytical chemist, his reports 
and analyses ; reports on the relative efficacy of the several cin- 
chona alkaloids ; on cinchona cultivation at Darjiling and in 
British Burmah. 

d. Copy of the Cinchona Correspondence. August 1870 to July 

1875. 190 pages. 

Contains also reports on the manufacture of the alkaloids in 
India, collection, shipment and analyses of barks. 

The numerous facts derived from the Blue Books in the 
present .representation of this subject may give an idea of the 
richness of their contents. 

5. Delondre (Augustin). See Soubeiran et Delondre. 

6. Delondre (Augustin Pierre) et Bouchardat (Apollinaire). Quino- 
logie , Paris, 1854, 48 pages and 23 plates. Quarto. Colored 
figures of more than 30 different true and falseT Cinchona barks, 
representing their natural appearance very accurately. 

7. Gorkom (K. W. van). Die Chinacultur auf fava. Leipsic, 
1869, 61 pages. An account of the management of the Dutch 
plantations. Handbook of the Cinchona Culture , translated by 
P. D. Jackson, London, 1883 ; royal 8vo, 292 pages and one 

8. Hesse (Oswald). The reseafches of this chemist are summar- 
ized in the articles Chinarinden , Chinin , Cinchonin , Conchinin, etc., 
in Fehlings Neues Handwörterbuch der Chemie , Band II 1876 to 

9. Howard (John Kliot). Illustrations of the Nueva Quinologia of 
Davon. London, 1862, 163 pages and 30 plates; large folio ; 
28 beautifully colored figures of Cinchonas, and two plates 
representing the microscopical structure of the barks. Price 
126 marks (about 30 dollars). A German edition of the “Nueva 
Quinologia” has been published by the Austrian Pharmaceutical 
Association. Vienna, 1862, 178 pages, 8vo, without the figures 



(to be had in London at Lovell, Reeves & Co., Henrietta Street, 
Covent Garden). 

10. Howard (J. E.) Quinology of the East Indian Plantations. 
London, one part, 1869; folio ; X and 43 pages, with three 
plates, representing the microscopical structure of cultivated 
Cinchona barks. 

Parts II and III, 1876; folio ; XIV and 74 pages, with two (not 
very successful) views of Indian Cinchona plantations, and beau- 
tiful figures of Calisaya Ledgeriana, Cinchona officinalis, C. 
pitayensis Wedd. (C. Triante Karst.), and others. Price of the 
three parts 84 marks (about 21 dollars). Compare furthermore 
page 63, note 1, and page 87, note 1. 

11. Karsten (Hermann). Die medicinischen Chinarinden New 
Granadas. Berlin, 1858, 62 pages, 8vo, and two plates, repre- 
senting the microscopic structure of transverse sections of Cin- 
chona Calisaya, C. lancifolia, C. Uritusinga, Cascarilla (Laden- 
bergia) oblongifolia, Cascarilla macrocarpa and others. An 
English translation, prepared under the supervision of Mr. 
Markham, has been published by the India Office, under the 
title of Notes on the Medicinal Cincho 7 ia Barks of New Granada, 
by H. Karsten, 1861. The plates have not been reproduced. 

12. Karsten (Hermann). Flores Columbice terraranique adjacen- 
tinm specimina selecta. Berlin, 1858 ; large folio. The first four 
parts of this magnificent work give colored figures of the follow- 
ing Cinchonas and allied species, which are likewise designated 
by the author as Cinchonas : Cinchona barbacoensis, C. bogo- 
tensis, C. cordifolia, C. corymbosa, C. Henleana, C. lancifolia, 
C. macrocarpa, C. macrophylla, C. Moritziana, C. pedunculata, 
C. prismatostylis, C. Trianse, C. tucujensis, C. undata. 

13. King (George). A Manual of Cinchona cultivation in India. 
Calcutta, 1876, 80 pages; small folio. Second edition, 1880, 
105 pages (out of print). 

14. Kuntze (Otto). Cinchona. Arten, Hybriden und Cidtur der 
Chininbäume. A monographic study based upon personal ob- 
servations in the plantations of Java and the Himalaya. Leipsic, 
1878, 124 pages, with 3 plates. Compare the review in the 
Archiv, der Pharm. 213 (1878) pp. 473-480. 

15. Lambert (Aylmer Bourke). A description of the genus Cin- 
chona, comprehending the various species of v ege tables from which 
Peruvian and other barks of a similar quality are taken. London, 
1797, 4to, 54 pages and 13 plates, in which are figured a speci- 
men of Cinchona officinalis sent by Condamine, in 1 740, to Lon- 
don, C. pubescens, derived from a plant of Jussieu (see pages 



18 and 19), as also nlne other Rubiacese designated as Cinchona. 
This publication, pages 30-36, gives also the history of the so- 
called China ( Cinchona ) bicolor , China ( Cinchona ) Pitoya or 
Tecatnez , found by the naval physician, D. Brown, in Tecamez, or 
Atacamez, on the coast of Ecuador. The origin of this bark, 
which is free from alkaloid, and is occasionally mixed with the 
American varieties, still remains unknown ; it has not the re- 
motest resemblance to any Cinchona bark. 1 

16. Lambert. An illustration of the genus Cinchona , comprising 

descriptions of all the ofßcinal Peruvian barks, inchtding several 
new species, Baron de Humboldt' s Account of the Cinchona Forest s 
of South America and Laubert's Memoir on the different species 
of Quinquina , etc. London, 1821, 4 0 . 

17. Laubert. Reeller ches botaniques, chimiques et pharmaceutiques 
sur le Quinquina. Journal de Me de eine, Chirurgie et de pharm, 
milit. Juillet 1816. An English translation is given in Lam- 
bert’ s “ Illustration,” etc. 

18. Maclvor (William Graham). Notes on the propagation and 
cultivation of the medicinal Cinchonas or Peruvian bark trees. 
Madras, 1867. 33 pages and 9 plates. The seconcl edition, 
Madras, 1880, 90 pages, includes the following publication, 
both as unchanged reprints. 

19. Maclvor (W. G.). A letter on the cultivation of Cinchona 

in the Nilgiris. Printed for private circulation only. Ootaca- 
mund, 1876. 27 pages. 8°. The principal Information con- 

tained in both of these publications may also be found in the 
Blue Books, further in Gorkom’s publication, see page 93 No. 7. 

20. Markham. Zwei Reisen in Peru. A German translation. 
Leipsic, 1865. 

21. Markham. The Chinchona species of New Granada , containing 

the botanical descriptions of the species examined by Drs. Mutis 
and Karsten; with some account of those botanists, and of the 
results of their labors. London, 1867. ! 39 pages. The five 

plates are reduced, uncolored lithographic copies of the (colored) 
figures of the true Cinchonas in Karstens work, mentioned on 
page 94, No. 12; they represent the following: Cinchona 
corymbosa, C. Trianse, C. lancifolia, C. Cordifolia, C. tucujensis. 

22. Markham. A Memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio , Countess of 
Chinchon and vice-queen of Peru (A. D. 1629-1 63g), with a plea 

1 An, indeed, somewhat imperfect figure of the “ Tecamez bark ” is contained in 

Crobel and Kunze, Pharm. Waarenkunde I (1827-1829) Plate XII. Compare further 

regarding this bark, Martiny, Rohwaarenkunde I (1843), 387. Vogl, Falsche China- 
rinden 10. Oberlin et Schlagdenhauffen, Journ. de Pharm. 28 (1878), 252. 



for the correct spelling of the Chinchona genus, by Clements 
R. Markham, c. b., f. r. s., commendador da Real Ordern de 
Christo, Socius Academiae Caesareae Naturae Curiosorum, cogno- 
men Chinchon. London, Trübner & Co., 1874. 99 pages, 

4 0 , with wood-cuts, a map, and 2 heraldic figures in gold print. 
Price 28 marks (about $7). 

The title of this elegantly executed polemic represents its 
purpose, the displacement of the word Cinchona by the diplo- 
matically more correct Chinchon (see page 87). The author 
gives, furthermore, all the information regarding the Countess 
Chinchon, which, through his sagacity, was still capable of being 
obtained from her home. Compare, regarding this publication, 
the review in Büchners Repertorium für Pharmacie , XXIV 
(1875), 178; also Hanbury , Science Papers, 1876, page 475. 

23. Markham. Peruvian Bark. A populär account of the intro- 
duction of Chinchona cultivation into British India. With maps 
and illustrations. London, 1880, 550 pages, three maps, and 
three tolerably good illustrations. This book is based upon 
those mentioned under Nos. 4, 20 and 21, without presenting 
any new results. Price 14 marks [about 3^2 dollars]. The 
principal chapters contained therein are the following : The 
knowledge of the bark possessed by the natives of Peru ; the 
Countess Chinchon ; discovery of the Cinchona trees ; descrip- 
tion of the same and of their barks ; their removal to India ; 
cultivation of coca (Erythroxylon Coca); Ledger’s merit ; Ser- 
vices of the English travelers, Spruce, Pritchett, Cross, Weir, 
Markham ; plantations in India, Ceylon, Java, Jamaica and 
Mexico; preparation of the crude alkaloids (“Febrifuge,” see 
p. 80) in India ; financial results in India ; trees in India ; culti- 
vation of cotton and of caoutchouc in India. 

24. Martius (C. F. Ph. von). Die Fieber-Rinde , der Chinabaum, 
sein Vorkommen und seine Cultur. 54 pages. ( From Büch- 
ner s Neues Repertorium für Pharmacie, XII, 1863, pages 335 to 

39 °)- 

25. Oudemans (Anthony Cornelis). See page 77. 

26. Owen (C. T.). Cinchona Planter s Manual. Ceylon, 1881. 
203 pages. A guide for the cultivation of the Cinchonas in 

27. Planchon (Gustave). Des Quinquinas. Paris et Montpellier, 

1864. 150 pages. A good critical review of the Cinchonas 

and their barks. An English translation has been issued, under 
the superintendence of Mr. Markham, by the India Office, under 



the title of Peruvian Parks, by Gustave Planchon, London, 
printed by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1866. 

28. Reichardt. Chemische Bestandteile der Chinarinden. Braun- 
schweig, 1855. 164 pages. 8°. 3 plates. . _ 

29. Reichel. Chinarinden und deren Bestandteile. Leipzig, 1856. 
56 pages. 8°. 

30. Ruiz (Hipolito Ruiz Lopez). Qmnologia , a tratado del ärbol 

a Quina 0 Cascarilla , can su descripcion , y la de otras especias de 
Quinas unevamente descubiertas en el Peru ; del modo de benefici- 
arla, de su eleccion , commercio , virtudes su, Madrid, 1 794 - 4 °- 

i°3 pages. 

31. Ruiz. Suplemento ä la Qmnologia. Madrid, 1801. 4 0 . 154 

pages and 1 plate. 

32. Soubeiran (J. Leon) et Delondre (Augustin). De l'introduc- 
tion et de l' acclimatation des Cinchonas dans les Indes neerlandai- 
ses et anglaises. Paris, i868 v 165 pages. 

33. Triana (Jose). Nouvelles Etudes sur les Quinquinas d' apres les 
materiaux presentes en i 86 y ä V exposition universelle de Paris et 
accompagnees de fac-simile des dessins de la Quinologie de Mutis , 
suivies de remarques sur la cidture des quinquinas . — Ouvrage 
honore des encouragements du governement de S. M. Bntanique. 
Paris, 1870. F. Savy, Folio. 80 pages and 33 plates. Price 
70 francs (about $14). 

Areviewof this publication will be found in Just’s Botanischer 
Jahresbericht , 1873, page 484. 

34. Vogl (August). Chinarinden des Wiener Grosshandels und 

der Wiener Sammlungen. Wien, 1867. 8°. 134 pages. 

A very exhaustive description (without figures) of the micro- 
scopic structure of the barks occurring in the Vienna market, or 
preserved in themuseums of that city. 

35 - Vogl (A.). Beiträge zur Kenntniss der sogenannten falschen 
Chinarinden. Wien, 1876. 4 0 . 24 pages, and figures of 7 

microscopic sections. (From a commemorative essay in cele- 
bration of the 25dl anniversary of the zoölogical botanical 
society of Vienna). 

The barks, which are here considered and figured, belong on 
the one hand to Buena [ Cascarilla ), Exostemma, Gomphosia, 
Nauclea, and Remijia, and on the other to undetermined 
mother-plants. Among the latter, e. g., Cinchona ( China alba ) 
Payta, which contains the alkaloid paytine, (see page 64), 
Cinchona [China) bicolorata (page 95), and Cinchona [China) of 

36. Vrij (John Eliza de). Kinologische Studien. 33 essays, re- 



lating chiefly to the Chemical constituents of the barks from 
Java and British India. These studies have appeared, since 
1866, in Haaxman’s Tijdschrift voor Pharmacie in Nederland ; 
other publications of De Vrij upon this subject are contained in 
the London Pharmaceutical Journal and in the Paris Journal de 

37. Weddell (Hugh Algernon). Idistoire naturelle des Quinquinas, 

ou monographie du genre Cinchona , suivie d'une description du 
genre Cascarilla et de quelques autres plantes de la meine tribu. 
Paris, 1849. 108 pages, 30 plates and 1 map. Folio. Price 60 

francs (about $1 2). 

38. Weddell (H. A.). Notes sur les Quinquinas. Extrait des An- 

nales des Sciences Naturelles , 5® serie, tomes XI et XII. Paris, 
Masson et fils, 1870. 8°, 75 pages. A systematic arrange- 

ment of the genus Cinchona, and description of its (33) species, 
accompanied by useful remarks on their barks. An English 
translation has been printed by the India Office, with the title — 
Notes 011 the Quinquinas , by H. A. Weddell, London, 1871,8°, 64 
pages. A German edition by Dr. F. A. Flückiger has also been 
published under the title Uebersicht der Cinchonen, von H. A. 
Weddell, Schaffhausen and Berlin, 1871, 8°, 43 pages, with ad- 
ditions and index. 

Compare Just’s Botanischer J ahresbericht, 1873, page 489. 


Arariba Bark, 50. 

Arariba rubra Martins, 50. 

Aribine, 50. 

Aricine, 64. 

Ar rot, 81 , 86. 

Bado, 83, 84. 

Belga, 84. 

Bernelot Moens, 27, 33, 34, 67, 68. 
Betaquinidine, 63. 

Betaquinine, 63. 

Bonpland, 89. 

Broughton, 27, 34, 68. 

Buena, 10, 48, 97. 

Caffeic acid from Cinchona cuprea, 53. 
Calebeja, 68. 

Calisaya, 42, 44. 

“ Ledgeriana, 17. 

Carthagena barks, 45. 

Cascadores, 29. 

Cascara, 29. 

Cascarilla, 10, 98. 

“ barbacoensis Karsten, 10, 12, 94. 
“ Bark, 85. 

“ Henleana Karsten, 10, 94. 

“ heterocarpa Karsten, 10, 21, 48. 
“ magnifolia Endlicher, 21, 48, 88. 
Cascarilleros, 29. 

Cascarillos bobos, n, 23. 

“ finos, 11, 23. 

Chifflet, 84. 

China (see Cinchona). 

Chinasäure, 61. 

Chine hon, 83, 87, 95. 

Chinchona, 87. 

Chino'idine, 64. 

“ iodosulphate, 77. 

Chinova-bitter, 62. 

Chinovic acid, 62. 

Chinovin, 62. 

Chiritmanos, 82. 

Cinchamidine, 64. 

Cinchocerotin, 59. 

Cincholine, 64. 

Cinchona, 9, 12, 24, 86. 

alba Payta, 64, 97. 

“ alkaloids, 63. 

amygdalifolia Weddell, 92. 
australis Weddell, 22. 
barbacoensis, 10, 12, 94. 

" Barks, 9. 

Cinchona Barks, false, 11. 

“ white, 35, 64. 
bicolor, 95, 97. 

— bitter, 62. 
bogotensis Karsten, 94. 
boliviana, 16, 26. 
Bonplandiana Howard, 19. 
Calebeja, 68. 

Calisaya, 42, 44. 

“ fibrosa, 44. 

“ Ledgeriana, 17. 

“ Weddell, 16, 25. 

Cantagallo, 50. 

Caqueta or Caqueza, 45. 
Carabaya, 44. 

Caroni, 85. 

Carthagene ligneux, 45. 
Chahuarguera Pavon, 19. 
Chomeliana Weddell, 12. 
Columbian, 45. 

Condaminea, 19. 
cordifolia Mutis, 11, 18, 87, 94, 
95 - 

corymbosa Karsten, 66 , 91, 94, 

95 - 

crispa Tafalla, 19. 
cuprea, 1 1, 50. 

Cusco, 44. 
flava fibrosa, 44. 
flowers, 68. 
forests, 25. 
fruits, 68. 
fusca, 46. 
grisea, 46. 

Henleana Karsten, 10, 94. 
heterocarpa Karsten, 10, 21, 

heterophylla Pavon, 11, 92. 
hirsuta Ruiz et Pavon, 12. 
Howardiana Kuntze, 13. 
Huamalies, 92. 

Huänuco, 46, 58, 92. 

Jaen, 58, 92. 

Josephiana Weddell, 16. 
laccifera Pavon, 49. 
lancifolia Midis, 18, 25, 44, 66, 
88 . 

lanosa, 15. 
leaves, 68. 

Ledgeriana, 17, 28, 67, 94. 
Loxa, 43, 47, 58, 92. 
lucumaefolia Pavon, 92. 




Cinchona macrocalyx Pavon, 92. 

macrocarpa Karsten, 94. 
macrophylla Karsten, 19, 94. 
magnifolia, Pavon, 21, 48, 88. 
micrantha Rute et Pavon, 17, 

microphylla Mutis, 92. 
Moritziana Karsten, 94. 
Mutisii Lambert, 12. 
nitida Rute et Pavon, 47, 92. 

“ nova, 49, 62, 85. 

oblongifolia Mutis, 48, 88. 
officinalis Hooker, 18, 87, 94. 
ovata Rute et Pavon, 92. 

“ y erythroderma, Wed- 
dell, 15, 

Pahudiana Howard, 13. 

Palton Pavon, 92. 

Para fusca, 58, 64, 68. 

“ Paraguatan, 49. 

pata de gallinazo, 47. 

" Pavoniana Kuntze , 13. 

Pelletiereana Wecldell, 92. 

“ peruviana, 44. 

pitayensis Weddell, 94. 

Pitoya, 95. 

prismatostylis Karsten, 19, 94. 

“ pubescens, 15. 

“ “ Vahl, 12, 16, 58, 66, 87. 

purpurescens Weddell, 12. 

“ — red, 60. 

regia, 42, 44, 48. 

“ robusta, 15. 

“ roja, 17, 49. 88. 

“ rosa, 39, 49. 

" rosea, 49. 

“ rubiginosa, 45. 

“ rubra, 45, 88, 92. 

“ Santa Ana, 44. 

“ Savanilla, 49. 

scrobiculata Humboldt et 
Bonpland, 43, 92. 

* succirubra Pavon, 15, 24, 26, 

45 - 

" Tecamez, 95. 

" Tolima, 11, 52. 

Trianae Karsten, 94, 95. 

“ tucujensis Karsten, Truxillo, 

22, 94, 95, 97. 

“ Tuna, Tunita, 18, 88. 

‘‘ umbellulifera Pavon, 92. 

“ undata Karsten, 94. 

“ Uritusinga Howard, 19. 

“ Valparaiso, 49. 

“ Weddelliana Kuntze, 13. 

Cinchonamine, 54, 64. 

Cinchonamine Bark, 54. 

Cinchonidine, 63, 65. 

Cinchonine, 63, 65. 

Cincho-tannic acid, 60. 

Cinchotine, 63, 65. 

Collahuayas, 82. 

Columbian Bark, 45. 

Cotidamine, 18, 24, 81, 86. 

Condaminea tinctoria D. C., 49. 
Conquinamine, 64. 

Conquinine, 63. 

Coppicing, 32. 

Cortex Araribae, 50. 

“ Cascarillae, 85. 

“ Cinchonae griseus, 46. 

“ pallidus, 46. 

“ “ regius, 42. 

Cosmibuena, 10, 88. 

Crown Bark, 48. 

Cuprea Bark, 1 1, 50. 

Cuscamidine, 64. 

Cuscamine, 64. 

Cusco Bark, 44. 

Cusconidine, 64. 

Cusconine, 64. 

De Vrij (see Vrij). 

Dombey, 47, 89. 

Exostemma, 18, 97. 

Febrifuge, 80, 96. 

Ferdinandusa chlorantha Pohl, 58. 
Gomez, 63. 

Gomphosia chlorantha Weddell, 58, 97. 
Gorkom, 27, 28, 93. 

Grahe’s Reaction, 68. 

Hanke, 42. 

Hard Bark, 53. 

Hasskarl, 25. 

Helopeltis Antonii, 29. 

Herapathite, 77, 79. 

Hesse, 50, 64, 69, etc. 
Homocinchonidine, 64. 

Homoquinine, 64. 

Howard, 12, 17, 2 7, 40, 64, 93, 94, etc. 
Humboldt, 24, 43, 82, 89. 
Hydrocinchonidine, 65. 
Hydrocinchonine, 65. 

Hydroquinidine, 65. 

Jesuits’ Bark, 81, 84, 85, 86, 90. 

Joosia umbellifera Karsten, 10. 
Junghuhn, 27. 

Jussieu, 86, 94. 

Karsten, 21, 23, 29, 37, 66, 91, 94. 

Kina kina, 81. 

Kinic acid, 61. 

Kinovic acid, 62. 

Kinovin, 62. 

Königschina, 42, 43, 48. 

Kronchina, 48. 

Kuntze, 13, 14. 



Ladenbergia, io, 20, 48. 

Lagaraye , 61. 

Lasionema, 10. 

Lawson, 27. 

Ledger’s Cinchona, 17. 

Ligno'in, 60. 

Lopez Ruiz, 88. 

Lngo, 83. 

Loxa, 19, 47. 81, 83, 87. 

Mac Ivor, 27, 33. 

Macrocnemum, 10, 49. 

Mancilla, 89. 

Mannitan, 62. 

Markham, 49, 82, 87, etc. 

Moens (see Bemeloi). 

Mossing process, 33. 

Mutis, 18, 48, 88, 89. 

Nauclea Cinchona D. C., 92, 97. 

Pahud, 25, 27. 

Paraguatan Bark, 49. 

Paricine, 64. 

Pata de gallinazo, 47. 

Davon, 47, 89. 

Paytine, 64. 

Peruvian Bark, 9, 86. 

Phlobaphen, 60. 

Phcebus, 91. 

Pimentelia glomerata Weddell , 10. 
Planchon, 54, 96. 

Quercite, 61. 

Quina, 35, 88. 

Quina-quina, 81. 

Quinamine, 64. 

Quinetum, 81. 

Quinidine, 63, 65. 

Quinine, 63, 65. 

sulphate, 57, 65, 79. 
Quino-quino, 81. 

Quinoidin, 64. 

Quinovic acid, 62. 

Quinovin, 62. 

Quinquina, 9. 

Quinquina a cinchonamine, 54. 

Red Cinchona Bark, 15, 45. 

Remijia, 10, 20, 29, 97. 

“ Bergeniana Weddell, 20. 

“ cujabensis Weddel, 20. 

“ densiflora Bentham et Hooker, 20. 

“ ferruginea, D. C., 19. 

“ firmula Weddell, 20. 

“ Hilarii D. C., 20. 

" hispida Triana, 20. 

“ macrocnemia Weddell, 20. 

“ macrophylla, 19, 

“ paniculata D. C., 20. 

“ pedunculata Triana, 20. 

“ prismatostylis, 19, 94. 

“ Purdieana Weddell, 20, 21. 

“ Riveroana, 21. 

“ tenuiflora Bentham, 20. 

“ Vellozii, 52. 

Remijo, 19. 

Renquifo, 47. 

Resin-ring, 47. 

Ruiz, 47, 88, 89, 97. 

Santisteban, 88. 

Squibb, 70. 

Tafalla, 49, 89. 

Talbor, 85. 

Tecamez Bark, 95. 

Thalleioquin, 65. 

Tolima Bark, 11, 52. 

Triana , 18, 19, 20, 54. 

Tuna, Tunita, 18, 43, 66. 

Uprooting, 33. 

Vega, 83. 

Velloso, 11, 19. 

Vrij, de, 27, 62, 66, 67, 74, 77, 80, 97, etc. 

Weddell, 12, 16, 20, 29, 37, 42, 91, etc. 
Wellcome, 19, 29, 30. 

Yungas, 32. 



P a g e 48, 2d and 4dl line from top, read Crown for Brown. 
P a g e 5 °> foot-note 1 ; read Aribine for Arabine. 


I. Cinchona succirubra. After specimens grown by Mac Ivor, in 1875, 
in Ootacamund. 

II. Cinchona Calisaya , Var. Ledgenana. After specimens from Java. 
a, longitudinal section of a flower. b, longitudinal section of a 
flower with a short style (the so-called male form, inacho of the 
Spanish). c, longitudinal section of a flower with a long style (the 
so-called female form, hembra). 

III. Cinchona Calisaya, Var. Ledgeriana. After specimens from Java. 

Representing the magnified capsule of a form provided with hairy 
früits, and seed magnified ten-fold. 

IV. Cinchona lancifolia. After specimens from Java, with the use of 

plates XI and XII in Karsten’s Flor. Columb. specim. sclect. 

V. Cinchona officinalis. A flowering branch from Darjeeling. Cascarilla 
heterocarpa {inagnif olid). After Karsten’s Flor. Columb. specim. 
sei., plate VI. Representing the capsules, dehiscing from the 

VI. Remijia pcdunculata. (Cinchona pedunculata) from Karsten’s Flor. 
Columb. spec. sei. Tab. XXVI. 

VII. A. Cinchona Calisaya, transverse section of a young bark. B. Cin- 
chona Calisaya, transverse section of an older bark. C. Cinchona 
lancifolia, transverse section of the bark. e, cork; k, sclerenchyma 
(stone-cells) ; o, outer bark; p, lacticiferous ducts; q, bast rays 
(bast wedges); r, medullary rays; s, bast fibres (bast tubes); u, 
staff-shaped sclerotic cells (staff fibres); v, bast. In the lower 
figures, sr represents bast fibres of Cinchona cuprea\ sc, bast fibres 
of Calisaya and other “true” Cinchona barks. 

VIII. Cinchona cuprea. A highly magnified transverse section. e, older; 

f younger cork; k, sclerenchyma (stone cells); o, outer bark ; p, 
lacticiferous ducts; r, medullary rays; s, bast fibres (bast tubes); 
v, bast; x, crystal ducts. 

1 . 

Cinchon a succirubra 


Cinchona Calisaja, Var 5 . Ledgepiana. 




Cinchona lancifolia. 


Cinchona officinalis 

Cascanlla heterocarpa ( magmfoiia.) 


Remijia pedunculata 











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